International Journal of Occupational Hygiene 2017. 9(4):207-214.

Application of Ultrasound-assisted Emulsification Solidification of Floating Organic Drop Microextraction for Preconcentration and Trace Detection of Iron (III) in Water and Human Urine Samples


At present, metals are used in many industries and working places so the consequence use and exposure to toxic  metals is some human health risks. In order to protect the exposed  people to these metals,  identification of toxic metals  in biological samples can be an effective strategy in the controlling of people's health. In the present research, ultrasound-assisted emulsification with solidification of floating organic droplet microextraction procedure (USAE-SFODME) combined with atomic absorption spectroscopy was used for pre-concentration and determination trace amount of iron (III) from water and urine matrices. This research consisted of preparation of samples containing iron (III), iron extraction and analysis with flame atomic absorption spectroscopy equipped with iron hollow cathode lamp with analysis wavelength of 248.33 nanometers. Optimization of the extraction conditions was carried out for ligand volume, solvent volume, temperature, sonication time and pH. Detection of limit (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were respectively 0.378 and 1.147 μg mL-1 in this research. The proposed method in pre-concentration and analysis trace amount of iron in aquatic samples can be established as a successful method. One of the important advantages of this approach reduces the operator exposure to toxic substances.


USAE-SFODME; Urine sample; Iron; Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy

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