Investigating Health Problems and Their Associated Risk Factors among Employees of Iranian Petrochemical Industries with Emphasis on Shift Working
AbstractThe main purposes of this study were to investigate health problems and their associated risk factors among employees of Iranian petrochemical industries. This cross-sectional study was carried out at 21 Iranian petrochemical companies. Study population consisted of 3580 workers (including 44.2% shift workers and 55.8% day workers). Data on personal details, shift schedule and health problems were collected by anonymous questionnaire. Statistical analyses and regression modeling were performed using SPSS, version 22.0. Means of age in shift workers and day workers were 33.15±7.73 and 34.56±8.19 years, respectively. The results showed that prevalence of health problems among shift workers was higher than that of day workers. Binary logistic regression indicated that in addition to shift working, age, long working hours, type of employment, level of education and job title were also associated with health outcomes. Although, working in shift system was the main risk factor associated with the health problems, but demographic and work variables had association.
Tamagawa R, Lobb B, Booth R. Tolerance of shift work. Appl Ergon 2007; 38: 635-42.
Boivin DB, Tremblay GM, James FO. Working on atypical schedules. Sleep Medicine 2007; 8: 578–89.
Demerouti E, Bakker AB, Bulters AJ. The loss spiral of work pressure, work-home interference and exhaustion: reciprocal relations in a three-wave study. J Vocat Behav 2004; 64(1): 131–49.
Jusle´n HT, Verbossen J, Wouters M. Appreciation of localized task lighting in shift work—a field study in the food industry. Int J Indust Ergon 2007; 37: 433–43.
Leung AWS, Chan CCH, Ng JJM, Wong PCC. Factors contributing to officers’ fatigue in high speed maritime craft operations. Appl Ergon 2006; 37(5): 565–76.
Garbarino S, Beelke M, Costa G, Violani C, Lucidi F, Ferrillo F, Sannita W.G. Brain function and effects of shift work: implications for clinical neuropharmacology. Neuropsychobiology 2002; 45(1): 50–56.
Knutsson A, Hallquist J, Reuterwall C, Theorell T, Akersted T. Shiftwork and myocardial infarction: a case-control study. Occup Environ Med 1999; 56: 46-50.
Chen C, Shiu L, Li Y, Tung K, Chan K, Yeh C, Chen S, Wong R. Shift Work and Arteriosclerosis Risk in Professional Bus Drivers. Ann Epidemiol 2010; 20: 60–66.
Frost P, Kolstad H.A, Bonde J.P. Shift work and the risk of ischemic heart disease: a systematic review of the epidemiologic evidence. Scand J Work Environ Health 2009; 35: 163-79.
Choobineh A.R, Soltanzadeh A, Tabatabaee H, Jahangiri M, Khavvaji S. Health Effects Associated with Shiftwork in 12-hour Shift Schedule among Iranian Petrochemical Employees. Int J Occup Saf Ergon (JOSE). 2012; 18(3): 419-27.
Ognianova VM, Dalbokova DL. Stanchev V. Stress states, alertness and individual differences under 12-hour Shiftwork. Int J Indust Ergon 1998; 21: 283-91.
Barton J, Folkard S, Smith LR, Spelten ER, Totterdell PA, Standard Shiftwork index manual. (Retrieved Feb. 2007) http://www.workingtime. org/images/3/31/SSIMAN.doc.
Downing S.M. Reliability: on the reproducibility of assessment data. Medical Education 2004; 38: 1006-12.
Kleinbaum DG, Kupper LL, Morgenstern H. Epidemiological research principles & quantitave methods. 1st ed. Von nostrand reinhold publication 1982; 529.
Crispim C.A, Waterhouse J, Dâmaso A.R, Zimberg I.Z, Padilha H.G, Oyama L.M, Tufik S, De Mello M.T. Hormonal appetite control is altered by shift work: a preliminary study. Metabolism 2011; 60(12): 1726-35.
Pasqua I.C, Moreno C.R. The nutritional status and eating habits of shift workers: a chronobiological approach. Chronobiol Int 2004; 21: 949-60.
Geliebter A, Gluck M.E, Tanowitz M, Aronoff N.J, Zammit G.K. Work-shift period and weight change. Nutrition 2000; 16: 27-29.
Di Lorenzo L, De Pergola G, Zocchetti C, L'Abbate N, Basso A, Pannacciulli N, Cignarelli M, Giorgino R, Soleo L. Effect of shift work on body mass index: results of a study performed in 319 glucose-tolerant men working in a Southern Italian industry. Int J Obes 2003; 27: 1353-58.
Fischer FM. What do petrochemical workers, healthcare workers, and truck drivers have in common Evaluation of sleep and alertness in Brazilian shiftworkers. Cad. Saude publica, rio de Janeiro 2004; 20(6): 1732-38.
Cheng Y, Luh W.M, Guo Y.L. Reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the Job Content Questionnaire in Taiwanese workers. Int J Behav Med 2003; 10: 15-30.
Saksvik I.B, Bjorvatn B, Hetland H, Sandal G.M, Pallesen S. Individual differences in tolerance to shift work: A systematic review. Sleep Medicine Reviews 2011; 15: 221-35.
Gerber M, Hartmann T, Brand S, Holsboer-Trachsler E, Pühse U. The relationship between shift work, perceived stress, sleep and health in Swiss police officers. J Crim Just 2010; 38: 1167–75.