Current Issue

Vol 13 No 2 (2021)
Published: 2021-06-30

Original Article(s)

  • XML | views: 41 | pages: xxx-xxx

    Introduction: Resilience as a counterpoint to vulnerability can reduce the vulnerability of various natural, man-made and technological threats in complex technical systems. The present study was designed and conducted with the aim of comparative assessment of the vulnerability of the gas supply network to natural and technological threats.

    Method: This study was carried out in the form of a descriptive-analytical and cross-sectional study in Tehran metropolis gas supply network including town board stations, gas supply and distribution networks in 2019-2020. This study is based on vulnerability analysis method including three factors of likelihood, severity of consequences and the degree of preparedness for threats. Comparative vulnerability assessment in these three sections of the gas supply network was performed using IBM SPSS software v. 23.0.

    Results: The findings showed that out of eleven identified hazardous elements, the vulnerability index for three hazardous elements were estimated in the weak level threat, four hazardous elements in the medium level threat and the vulnerability index for four hazards were aevaluated in the severe threat. The results of comparative vulnerability assessment based on three parts of the gas supply network showed that the highest vulnerabilities belong to the gas distribution network (133.66±24.63), gas supply network (115.0±35.35) and town board stations (79.49±68.51), respectively. In addition, the results of Kruskal-Wallis test showed that the vulnerability difference in these three sections was not significant (p>0.05).

    Conclusion: The findings of the comparative assessment of vulnerability between   different parts of the gas supply network including town board stations (TBS), gas supply and distribution network indicated that the resilience of these parts were relatively low and require special attention to reduce vulnerability in the Tehran metropolis gas supply network.

    Keywords: Comparative assessment, Vulnerability analysis, Resilience, Gas supply network, Tehran Metropolis.

  • XML | views: 50 | pages: xxx-xxx

    Introduction: Appropriate environmental performance is considered as one of the important indicators in the sustainable development of organizations and industries. Evaluating the environmental performance in ports as one of the two main parts of the maritime transport system is very important. Therefore, this study was designed and conducted aimed at developing a method for evaluating the environmental performance of ports based on fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP).

    Methods: 22 experts in the field of environment and marine sciences took part in the present study in 2020. In the first step, various studies on the factors affecting the environmental performance of ports were reviewed. In the second step, a questionnaire was designed to assess ports environmental performance. In the third step, in a Delphi study, this questionnaire was developed. In the fourth step, by determining the weight of each parameter, the method of environmental performance assessment in ports was developed based on the FAHP.

    Results: The final normalized weights for six environmental performance factors including reactive and proactive performance, sustainability, socio-cultural, economic and governance were estimated 0.202, 0.241, 0.226, 0.070, 0.080 and 0.182, respectively. Additionally, it was found that each of the parameters has different weight and impact on these factors. The highest and lowest impact on environmental performance index belonged to environmental risk assessment (weight=0.217) and cultural effects and justice (weight=0.107), respectively.

    Conclusion: In this study, a new method has been developed for evaluating the environmental performance of ports based on six factors and 32 parameters and FAHP. Therefore, using this method can be an effective step in reducing environmental impacts and improving the level of environmental performance in ports to achieve the goal of "green port".

  • XML | views: 24 | pages: xxx-xxx


    The aim of semi-experimental research which was performed by pre-post-test method was to discuss the effectiveness of life skills training on assertiveness and work engagement among personnel of Dr. Shariati vocational and rehabilitation center of Tehran. The statistical population consisted of all staff working in above center (18 people) in 2018. Gambriel and Richi (1975) and Selano and Shufili questionnaires (2001) were used to estimate assertiveness and work engagement. The instruments had internal coincidence as 0.88 and 0.95. 60 educational programs were considered as experimental intervention pertain to life decuple skills (each skill for 6 hours’ training). In order to test hypothesis, t correlative groups were used. The results showed that experimental intervention influences on increment of assertiveness and its subscales (controversial and fundamental) and general work engagement has negative effect on attraction and powerful by interval 95% (p<0/05).


  • XML | views: 25 | pages: xxx-xxx

    Introduction: Enhancing the level of resilience to crisis is one of the key goals in medical environments. Various parameters can affect resilience to crisis. This study was designed and conducted to analyze resilience to crisis in medical environments based on crisis management components.

    Method: The present study was a cross-sectional, descriptive-analytical study that was performed in 2020 in 14 hospitals and medical centers. Based on Cochran's formula, the sample size was estimated to be 343.5. Data collection in this study was performed using a 44-item crisis management questionnaire of Azadian et al. (2016). The components of crisis management in this questionnaire included management commitment, error learning, culture learning, awareness, preparedness, flexibility and transparency. Analysis of study data was done based on the structural equation modeling approach using IBM SPSS AMOS v. 23.0.

    Results: The means of age and work experience of the participants in this study were 37.78±8.14 and 8.22±4.47 years, respectively. resilience to crisis index based on crisis management components was estimated 2.96±0.87. The results structural equation modeling of resilience to crisis showed that all components of crisis management have a significant relationship with this index (p <0.05). The highest and lowest impacts on resilience to crisis index were related to Preparedness (E=0.88) and Transparency (E=0.60). Goodness of fit indices of this model including RMSEA, CFI, NFI and NNFI (TLI) are estimated 2.86, 0.071, 0.965, 0.972 and 0.978, respectively.

    Conclusion: The findings of the study indicated that the resilience to crisis index was moderately evaluated in the medical environments. Furthermore, based on the results of structural equation modeling, in prioritizing measures to increase the level of resilience, the impact of each component on the resilience to crisis index should be considered.

  • XML | views: 24 | pages: xxx-xxx

    Background and Aim: The root cause of many incidents in workplaces is the lack of knowledge on occupational safety and health principles. Despite the safety and health authorities in organizations, safety and health is a general responsibility of all other experts working in an organization. Experts and managers are expected to think, decide and work safely in workplaces. However, we don’t know how much they received safety and health related education when they were in universities. We have no reliable published report on the academic teaching of safety and health courses and syllabus in higher education in Iran.  Therefore, this study aimed to provide a general view of the status of teaching occupational safety and health subjects in different academic disciplines (excluding specialized fields in occupational safety and health) in the Iranian higher educational system.

    Method: First, the latest edition of the entire program (curricula) of all academic disciplines held in Iran’s universities was downloaded. Then, the required information including discipline title, program’s degree, number of required (core) and elective (non-core) courses, and program’s date of approval were recorded in an Excel sheet. Every course’s title and syllabus are then studied to finding out any safety and health-related topics. Finally, data were analyzed and reported.

    Results: 251 academic disciplines in the Ministry of Health and Medical Education (MOHME) and 771 discipline in the Ministry of Science, Research and Technology (MSRT) were investigated. Most of the curriculums have been revised by both ministries since 2011. Results showed that 20 percent of the MOHME‎ ‎disciplines and 10.4 percent of MSRT‎ disciplines are included in occupational safety and health courses. The number of courses with health and safety content (syllabus outline) in the MOHME ‎ ‎and the MSRT‎ were 168 and 173 respectively. Most health and safety courses presented in the MOHME academic majors were in the basic medical sciences category of disciplines. In MSRT covered academic majors most of the safety and health courses and topics were presented in the Engineering category of disciplines. Presenting lessons with health and safety content at the MOHME ‎ ‎is more practical than that of the MSRT.

    Discussion and Conclusion: The quality and quantity of teaching on safety and health topic are not at satisfactory levels. Revising the course syllabus of the academic disciplines and adding theoretical and practical courses related to the specific health and safety curriculum of each field can make a significant contribution to improving the general knowledge of the safety and health of the university graduates. It is, in turn, improves future workplace safety and health conditions, managers' insights and decision-makers on the importance of safety and health at work, and protects the people's life and the property of the organization.

  • XML | views: 20 | pages: xxx-xxx

    Background: Numerous studies have been conducted to assess the role of human errors in accidents in different industries. Human reliability analysis (HRA) has drawn a great deal of attention among safety engineers and risk assessment analyzers. Despite technical advances and the development of processes, damaging and catastrophic accidents still happen in many industries.

    Objectives: Human Error Assessment and Reduction Technique (HEART) and Cognitive Reliability and Error Analysis Method (CREAM) methods were compared with the hierarchical fuzzy system in a steel industry to investigate the human error.

    Methods: This study was carried out in a rolling unit of the steel industry, which has four control rooms, three shifts and a total of 46 technicians and operators. After observing the work process, reviewing the documents, and interviewing each of the operators, the worksheets of each research method were completed. CREAM and HEART methods were defined in the hierarchical fuzzy system and the necessary rules were created and analyzed.

    Results: The findings of the study indicated that CREAM was more successful than HEART in showing a better capability to capture task interactions and dependencies as well as logical estimation of the HEP in the plant studied.

    Conclusions: Given the nature of the tasks in the studied plant and interactions and dependencies among tasks, it seems that CREAM is a better method in comparison with the HEART method to identify errors and calculate the HEP.


View All Issues