International Journal of Occupational Hygiene 2017. 9(2):.

Evaluating the Performance of American Change Phase Paraffin Cooling Vest and Iranian Spadana Gel Ice Cooling Vest on the Perceptual and Physiological Strain Score Index in Hot and Humid Working Conditions of Assaluyeh in Iran
Behnam Haghshanas, Habibollah Dehghan, Mohamad Javad Tarahi


Introduction: The aim of this study was to compare the effect of change phase paraffin cooling vest and Iranian Spadana gel ice cooling vest on the perceptual strain score index (PeSI) and physiological strain score index (PSI). This study investigated the effect of the vests on the wearers’ ability to work in hot and humid working conditions of Assaluyeh in Iran. The importance of preventing heat stress and maintaining individuals’ performances in hot workplaces provided the impetus for this study.

 Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional interventional study was conducted in 2016 on 90 individuals (30 individuals with Iranian cooling vests containing Spadana cooling gel ice packs, 30 individuals with change phase paraffin cooling vests, and 30 individuals without vests). All 90 were workers with  an identical level of physical activity and uniforms in Assaluyeh , which has an average temperature of  with 47°C and 95% relative humidity in the summer. The  heart rate (HR) and oral temperature (OT) were measured in order to assess the (PSI), and the questionnaires of PeSI and heat strain score index (HSSI) were also administered to assess the PeSI and the sweating while wearing the vests and in the control group, The WBGT index was measured for 120 minutes as well, and the checklist of individual strength (CIS) and the comfort assessment questionnaire were filled by the workers too. The repeated measures Test and the statistical analysis software SPSS 21 were used to analyse and compare the data.    

Results: The WBGT mean index was 37.65°C for all the three groups, the average heart rate in the group with the Iranian cooling vests was 91.76, in the group with the paraffin cooling vests was 89.53, and in the control group was 97.07 beats per minute. The mean oral temperature in the group with the Iranian cooling vests was 36.7°C, in the group with the paraffin cooling vests was 36.78°C, and in the control group was 36.63°C. The mean of PSI value was 3.18 in the group with the Iranian cooling vests, 2.29 in the group with the paraffin cooling vests, and 6.12 in the control group. The mean PeSI value in the group with Iranian cooling vests containing Spadana cooling gel ice packs was 7.39, while HSSI value was 6.33. For the group with paraffin change phase vests, the mean PeSI value was 6.36, while the HSSi value was 5.92. For the control group, the PeSI value was 9.95 and the HSSI was 13.28. The mean scores of PeSI, HSSI, PSI, and CIS in the groups with paraffin change phase cooling vests and Iranian cooling vests containing Spadana cooling gel ice packs had a statistically significant difference compared to the control group (P<0/001). The score of the comfort assessment questionnaire in the group with paraffin cooling vests was not significantly different from the score of the group with Iranian cooling vests (P>0/05).

Conclusion: The findings suggest that wearing the paraffin cooling vests and the Iranian cooling vests with Spadana gel ice for 90 minutes can acceptably and appropriately reduce the heat stress level of the users by decreasing the oral temperature, the heart rate, and the PeSI value, while increasing the CIS score.


Spadana cooling vest and phase change paraffin vest, Physiological Strain Score Index (PSI), Perception Strain Score Index (PeSI), Checklist Individual Strength (CIS), heat stress, Assaluyeh

Full Text:



Wing JF. Upper thermal tolerance limits for unimpaired mental performance. Aerospace med 1965; 36(10): 960-4.

Fanger PO. Thermal comfort. Copenhgen: Danish Technical Press; 1970.

Goldman RF. Introduction to heat-related problems in military operations. In: Pandolf KB, Burr RE, editor. Textbook of military medicine: Medical aspect of harsh environments. Washington DC: Office of the surgeon general, Department of the army; 2001

Yaglou CP , Minard D. Control of heat casualties at military training centers. Am Med Ass ArchInd Hlth 1957; 16(4) : 302-16.

Mortazavi SB, Dehghan Shahreza H, Jafari MJ, Meraci MR, Khavanin A, Jahangiri M. Structural Equation Modeling Application to Determine Validity of the Structure of a Thermal Strain Screening Method. Journal of Health System Research 2010; 6(4): 601-12. [In Persian].

Malchaire J, Gebhardt HJ, Piette A. Strategy for evaluation and prevention of risk due to work in thermal environments. Ann Occup Hyg 1999; 43(5): 367-376.

Nishihara N, Tanabe S-I, Hayama H, Komatsu M. A

cooling vest for working comfortably in a moderately hot

environment. Journal of physiological anthropology and

applied human science. 2002;21(1):75-82.

Reinertsen RE, Faerevik H, Holbo K, Nesbakken R, Reitan

J, Royset A, et al. Optimizing the performance of phasechange

materials in personal protective clothing systems.

International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics.


Bishop PA, Nunneley SA, Constable SH. Comparisons of

air and liquid personal cooling for intermittent heavy work in

moderate temperatures. The American Industrial Hygiene

Association Journal. 1991;52(9):393-397.

a a Mar n M, Cabeza LF, Mehling H. Review on

thermal energy storage with phase change: materials, heat

transfer analysis and applications. Applied Thermal

Engineering. 2003;23(3):251-283.

Konz S. Personal cooling garments: a review. ASHRAE

transactions. 1984;90(1B):499-518

Ukrainczyk N Kurajica S Šipušić . Thermophysica

comparison of five commercial paraffin waxes as latent heat

storage materials. Chemical and Biochemical Engineering


Bendkowska W, Kopias K, Bogdan A. Thermal manikinevaluation of PCM cooling vests. Fibres & Textiles in Eastern Europe. 2010;18(1):78-86.

Dehghan H, Mortazavi B, Jafari M, Maracy M. comparison between cardiac strain of normal weight and overweight workers in hot and humid weather of the south of iran Health Systems Research. 2012;8(5):866-875.

. Smolander J, Kuklane K, Gavhed D, Nilsson H, Holmer I. Effectiveness of a light-weight ice-vest for body cooling while wearing fire fighter's protective clothing in the heat. International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics. 2004;10(2):111-117.

Gao C, Kuklane K, Wang F, Holmér I. Personal cooling with phase change materials to improve thermal comfort from a heat wave perspective. Indoor air. 2012;22(6):523-530.

Gao C, Kuklane K, Holmér I, editors. Cooling effect of a PCM vest on a thermal manikin and on humans exposed to heat. 12th International Conference on Environmental Ergonomics; 2007: Biomed doo, Ljubljana, Slovenia.

Smolander J,kuklane k ,Gavhed D,NilssonH,HolmerI.effectiveness of a light – weight ice vest for body cooling while wearing fire fighters protective clothing in the heat . international journal of occupational safety and Ergonomics . 2004;10(2):111-117.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License which allows users to read, copy, distribute and make derivative works for non-commercial purposes from the material, as long as the author of the original work is cited properly.