Optimization of Solid Phase Extraction for Trace Determination of Cobalt (II) Using Chromosorb 102 in Biological Monitoring
Cobalt is widely used in different industrial processes for production of various synthetic materials. For assessment of human exposure to toxic metal of Co (II), environmental and biological monitoring are essential processes, in which, preparation of samples is one of the most time-consuming and error-prone aspects prior to instrumental analysis. The aim of this study was to achieve optimum factors necessary for development of a sample preparation technique for cobalt (II), present in urine, hair, and nail samples followed by atomic absorption spectrometry. Solid phase extraction (SPE) using mini columns filled with Chromosorb 102 resin was optimized regarding sample pH, ligand concentration, loading flow rate, elution solvent, sample volume (up to 500 ml), elution volume, amount of resins, and sample matrix interferences. Cobalt ion was retained on sorbent and was eluted with 2 M HNO3 followed by determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Obtained recoveries of cobalt ion were more than 92%. To evaluate occupational exposure to Co (II), successful applicability of the optimized method for human exposure was used by treatment real samples, including urine, hair, and nail. Suitable results were obtained for relative standard deviation (less than 10%). This optimized method can be considered successful in simplifying sample preparation for trace residue analysis of Co (II) in different matrices when an evaluation of occupational and environmental exposures is required.
Frank CLu, Basic toxicology. Taylor & Francis, England 1996; pp 293-312
Hathway GJ, Proctor N, Hughes J. Hughes JP. Chemical hazardous of the workplace, 4th ed. Van Nostrand Reinhold, a division of International Thomson Publishing Inc, Amazon.cz, USA 1996.
Bingham E, Cohrssen B. Powell HC. Patty,s toxicology; 5th ed. John Wiley & Sons. Inc. USA, 2001.
MC Dowall RD. Sample Preparation for biochemical analysis. J Chromatogr 1989; 492: 3-53.
Shahtaheri SJ, Kwasowski P, Stevenson D. Highly selective antibody- mediated extraction of isoproturon from complex matrices. Chromatographia 1998; 47: 453-6.
Shahtaheri SJ, Ghamari F, Golbabaei F, Rahimi-Froushani A, Abdollahi M. Sample preparation followed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis for monitoring muconic acid as a biomarker of occupational exposure to benzene. JOSE 2005; 11(4): 377-388.
Maria DF. Solid phase microextraction. J Chromatogr A 2000; 889: 3-14.
Hennion MC, Scribe P. Sample handling strategies for the analysis of organic compounds from environmental water samples. In: Barcelo D, Editor. Environmental analysis, techniques, applications, and quality assurance, Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier Science, 1993; pp: 23-77.
Poole SK, Dean TA, Oudsema JW, Poole CF. Sample preparation for chromatographic separation: an overview. Analitica Chimica Acta 1990; 236: 3-42.
Mc Dowall RD. Sample preparation for HPLC analysis of drugs in biological fluids. J Phrm Biomed Anal 1989; 7: 1087-96.
Shahtaheri SJ, and Stevenson D. Evaluation of factor influencing recovery of herbicide MCPA from drinking water. Iranian J Public Health 2001; 30: 15-20.
Mitra S. Sample preparation techniques in analytical chemistry, Hoboken, New Jersey, USA, John Wiley & Sons, 2003.
Tuzen M, Aydemir E, Sari H. Investigation of some physical and chemical parameters in the river Yesilirmak in Tokat region, Turkey. Fresen Environ Bull, 2002; 11: 202-207.
Ibrahim AE, Suffet HL. Freon FC-113 an alternative to methylene chloride for liquid-liquid extraction of trace organics from chlorinated drinking water. J Chromatogr A 1988; 454: 217-32.
Bouabdallah I, Zidane I, Hacht B, Touzani R, Ramdani A. Liquid-liquid extraction of copper (II), cadmium (II), and lead (II) using tripodal N-donor pyrazole ligands. ARKIVOK 2006; 11: 59-65.
Takeshita Y, Sato Y, Nishi S. Super critical fluid extraction of toxic metals from woods containing preservatives. Ecodesign, presented in: First international symposium on environmentally conscious design and inverse manufacturing, February 1-3 1999, Tokyo, Japan, p: 906.
Ramesh A, Mohan KR, Seshasah K. Preconcentration of rare earth quinolin-8-ol complexes onto activated carbon and determination by first order derivative X-ray. Tokmany flurescence spectrometry. Talanta 2002; 57: 243-252.
Akman S, Ozcan M, Demiral E. preconcentration of trace metals on amberlite XAD-4 resin coated with dithio carbamates and determination by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry in saline matrices. J Anal At Spectrom 2002; 17: 743-745.
Tuzen M, Narin I, Soylak M, ElciL. XAD-4/PAN solid phase extraction system for atomic absorption spectrometric determination of some trace metals in environmental samples. Anal Lett 2004; 37(3): 473-489.
Tokman N, Akman S. Determination of bismuth and cadmium after solid phase extraction with chromosorb 107 in a syringe. Anal Cimica Acta 2004; 519: 87-91.
Sturgeon RE, Berman SS, Desaulniers A, Russell DS. Preconcentration of trace metals from sea water for determination by graphit furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Talanta 1980; 27: 85-91.
Soylak M, Dogan M. Column preconcentration/separation and atomic absorption spectrometric determinations of some heavy metals in table salt samples using amberlite XAD-1180. Turk J Chem 2003; 27: 235-242.
Narin I, Soylak M, Elci L, Dogan M. Separation and enrichment of chromium, copper, nickel, and lead in surface sea water samples on a column filled with amberlite XAD-2000. Anal Lett 2001; 34(11): 1935-1947.
Cesur H. Determination of manganese, copper, cadmium, and lead by FAAS after solid phase extraction of their phenylpiperazine dithio carbamate complexes on activated carbon. Turk J Chem 2003; 27: 307-314.
Focant JF, Pirar C, Pauw ED. Automated sample preparation-gractionation for the measurement of dioxins and related compounds in biological matrices: a review. Talanta 2004; 63: 1101-13.
Petterson J, Kloskowski A, Zanio C, Reoraade J. Automated high-capacity sorption probe for extraction of organic compounds in equeous sample followed by gas chromatographic analysis. J Chromatogr A 2004; 1033: 339-47.
Hennion MC. Solid-phase extraction method development, sorbents, and coupling with liquid chromatography. J Chromatogr A 1999; 856: 3-54.
DaAntonio SM, Katz SA, Scheiner DM, and Wood JD. Anatomically- related variations in trace metal concentrations in hair. Clin Chem 1982; 28(12): 2411-2413.
Mehra R, Juneja M. Fingernails as biological indices of metal exposure. J Biosci 2005; 30 (2): 253-257.
TLVs and BEIs based on the documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Index, ACGIH, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA, 2006.
Baytak S, Balaban, A. et al.. Atomic absorption spectrometric determination of Fe (III) and Cr (III) in various samples after preconcentration by solid phase extraction with pyridine-2-carbaldehyde thiosemicarbasone. J Anal Chem 2006; 61:476-82.
|Issue||Vol 2 No 1 (2010)|
|Cobalt Atomic absorption spectrophotometry Chromosorb 102|
|Rights and permissions|
|This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.|