Hazard Identification in Steam Boilers (Case Study: Farabi Hospital)

  • MOAHAMMAD BARATCHI M.Sc., Department of Environmental Management (HSE), Faulty of Natural Resources and Environment, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
  • NABIOLLAH MANSOURI Professor, Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environment, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
  • AIDA AHMADI Assistant Professor, Department of Environmental Management (HSE), Faculty of Natural Resources and Environment, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
Hazard identification, Analytical Network Process, Health, Safety and environment


Steam boiler is a common primary utility that creates steam by applying heat energy to water in a close system and poses different threats. The present study aimed to identify health, safety, and environmental hazards by implementing Hazard Identification (HAZID) method and Analytical Network Process (ANP). Therefore, the identified hazards were categorized and scored by HAZID method and then, prioritized using ANP. A total number of 58 hazards were identified in 4 categories; of which, 6 hazards were weighted by the super decisions software. According to the results, job stress and cooling system wastewater were recognized as the most and the least important hazards, respectively.


Nigam N, Maheshwari A, Rao N. Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment.

Othman SN. A study on the compliance of manufacturing company to the Factories And Machinery Act 1967 (Act 139): a case study: Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka; 2011.

Willke TL, Shires TM, Cowgill RM, Selig BJ. US risk management can reduce regulation, enhance safety. Oil and Gas Journal. 1997;95(24):87-.

Evtushenko O. Modern state of occupational injury at meat industry enterprises of Ukraine. 2014.

Petroski H. Harnessing steam. American Scientist. 1996;84(1):15.

Bartrip PW. The state and the steam-boiler in nineteenth-century Britain. International review of social history. 1980;25(1):77-105.

Smith DJ. Regular maintenance, monitoring and operator training critical to boiler safety. Power Engineering. 2003;107(8):27-30.

Darwish A, Morsi I, El Zawawi A. Complete Combustion Control for a Steam Boiler Plant. 2016.

Avallone SC, Fowee RW, Macdonald JR, Furibondo NJ. Boiler system leak detection. Google Patents; 1994.

Diaz L, Savage G, Eggerth L. Alternatives for the treatment and disposal of healthcare wastes in developing countries. Waste Management. 2005;25(6):626-37.

Ramirez JC, Fecke M, Morrison DT, Martens JD, editors. Root Cause Analysis of an Industrial Boiler Explosion (and How Hazard Analysis Could Have Prevented It). ASME 2010 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition; 2010: American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

Ferguson ES. Risk and the American engineering profession: the ASME Boiler Code and American industrial safety standards. The Social and Cultural Construction of Risk: Springer; 1987. p. 301-16.

Robertson W. Boiler Operations. Boiler Efficiency and Safety: Springer; 1981. p. 56-70.

Kemp B, Nichols PJ. Pressurized steam boilers and their control. Google Patents; 2007.

Ken H. Boiler Operator's Handbook. Fairmont Press; 2004.

McIver A, Morgan C, Troubitsyna E, editors. The probabilistic steam boiler: a case study in probabilistic datafire nement. Proceedings of the International Refinement Workshop, Canberra; 1998: Citeseer.

Fecke M, Martens J, Cowells J. A guide to developing and implementing safety checklists: Plant steam utilities. Process Safety Progress. 2011;30(3):240-50.

VALLEY B. Guidebook. Corpus Christi, Texas. 1970.

Lee SW. Source profiles of particulate matter emissions from a pilot-scale boiler burning North American coal blends. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association. 2001;51(11):1568-78.

Fang J, Li G, Aunan K, Vennemo H, Seip HM, Oye KA, et al. A proposed industrial-boiler efficiency program in Shanxi: potential CO2-mitigation, health benefits and associated costs. Applied energy. 2002;71(4):275-85.

Silalertruksa T, Gheewala SH. Environmental sustainability assessment of bio-ethanol production in Thailand. Energy. 2009;34(11):1933-46.

Pongpiachan S. How to Reduce Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) from Industrial Boilers under the Context of Thailand. J Appl Sci. 2014;14:2882-91.

Smith J. Sequel to Workmen's Compensation Acts. Harvard Law Review. 1914;27(4):344-68.

Musyafa A, Adiyagsa H. Hazard and operability study in boiler system of the steam power plant. IEESE International Journal of Science and Technology (IJSTE). 2012;1(3):1-10.

Hansen T. Power plant safety: preparing the troops; Power plants are much safer than they once were; however, plant employees still encounter hazards. Training, along with proper operation and maintenance procedures, are key to reducing accidents and mitigating their effects. Power Engineering. 2005;109(6):20-7.

Robertson W. Boiler Efficiency and Safety. The Macmillan Press Limited, London; 1981.

Rodrigues VAJ, Braga CS, Campos JCC, de Souza AP, Minette LJ, Sensato GL, et al. Assessment of physical workload in boiler operations. Work. 2012;41(Supplement 1):406-13.

Kisku G, Bhargava S. Assessment of noise level of a medium scale thermal power plant. Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 2006;10(3):133.

Movafagpour M, Nezamodini Z, Shirali GA. Prediction and analysis of human errors on the Boiler operator using PHEA method: A case study in dairy industry. Jentashapir Journal of Health Research. 2013;4(5):339-44.

Amirah NA, Asma WI, Muda MS, Amin WAAWM. Safety culture in combating occupational safety and health problems in the Malaysian manufacturing sectors. Asian Social Science. 2013;9(3):182.

Siddiquia N, Nandana A, Sharmaa M, Srivastavaa A. Risk Management Techniques HAZOP & HAZID Study. 2014.

B.V SIEaP. HSE Manual. EP 95-0312 Revisron 0 26 September 1995. 1995.

Saaty TL. How to make a decision: the analytic hierarchy process. European journal of operational research. 1990;48(1):9-26.

Ayağ Z, Özdemir RG. Evaluating machine tool alternatives through modified TOPSIS and alpha-cut based fuzzy ANP. International Journal of Production Economics. 2012;140(2):630-6.

Saaty TL. Theory and applications of the analytic network process: decision making with benefits, opportunities, costs, and risks: RWS publications; 2005.

Sevkli M, Oztekin A, Uysal O, Torlak G, Turkyilmaz A, Delen D. Development of a fuzzy ANP based SWOT analysis for the airline industry in Turkey. Expert systems with Applications. 2012;39(1):14-24.

Sakthivel G, Ilangkumaran M, Gaikwad A. A hybrid multi-criteria decision modeling approach for the best biodiesel blend selection based on ANP-TOPSIS analysis. Ain Shams Engineering Journal. 2015;6(1):239-56.

Chang K-L, Liao S-K, Tseng T-W, Liao C-Y. An ANP based TOPSIS approach for Taiwanese service apartment location selection. Asia Pacific Management Review. 2015;20(2):49-55.

Saaty TL. Time dependent decision-making; dynamic priorities in the AHP/ANP: Generalizing from points to functions and from real to complex variables. Mathematical and Computer Modelling. 2007;46(7-8):860-91.

Shahabi RS, Basiri MH, Kahag MR, Zonouzi SA. An ANP–SWOT approach for interdependency analysis and prioritizing the Iran׳ s steel scrap industry strategies. Resources Policy. 2014;42:18-26.

Boran S, Goztepe K. Development of a fuzzy decision support system for commodity acquisition using fuzzy analytic network process. Expert Systems with Applications. 2010;37(3):1939-45.

Wang J, Xing R. Decision making with the Analytic Network Process: Economic, political, social and technological applications with benefits, opportunities, costs and risks. JSTOR; 2007.

Saaty TL, Takizawa M. Dependence and independence: From linear hierarchies to nonlinear networks. European journal of operational research. 1986;26(2):229-37.

Saaty RW. Decision making in complex environments: the analytic network process (ANP) for dependence and feedback; A Manual for the ANP Software SuperDecisions. Creative decisions foundation, Pittsburgh, PA. 2002.

Blackhurst JV, Scheibe KP, Johnson DJ. Supplier risk assessment and monitoring for the automotive industry. International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management. 2008;38(2):143-65.

Rand GM. Fundamentals of aquatic toxicology: effects, environmental fate and risk assessment: CRC Press; 1995.

Jharkharia S, Shankar R. Selection of logistics service provider: An analytic network process (ANP) approach. Omega. 2007;35(3):274-89.

Ravi V, Shankar R, Tiwari MK. Analyzing alternatives in reverse logistics for end-of-life computers: ANP and balanced scorecard approach. Computers & industrial engineering. 2005;48(2):327-56.

Parker DF, DeCotiis TA. Organizational determinants of job stress. Organizational behavior and human performance. 1983;32(2):160-77.

Kristensen TS. Job stress and cardiovascular disease: a theoretic critical review. Journal of occupational health psychology. 1996;1(3):246.

Carayon P, Smith MJ, Haims MC. Work organization, job stress, and work-related musculoskeletal disorders. Human factors. 1999;41(4):644-63.

Gold DR, Rogacz S, Bock N, Tosteson TD, Baum TM, Speizer FE, et al. Rotating shift work, sleep, and accidents related to sleepiness in hospital nurses. American journal of public health. 1992;82(7):1011-4.

Bøggild H, Knutsson A. Shift work, risk factors and cardiovascular disease. Scandinavian journal of work, environment & health. 1999:85-99.

Åkerstedt T. Shift work and disturbed sleep/wakefulness. Occupational medicine. 2003;53(2):89-94.

Folkard S, Tucker P. Shift work, safety and productivity. Occupational medicine. 2003;53(2):95-101.

Costa G. The impact of shift and night work on health. Applied ergonomics. 1996;27(1):9-16.

Straif K, Baan R, Grosse Y, Secretan B, El Ghissassi F, Bouvard V, et al. Carcinogenicity of shift-work, painting, and fire-fighting. Elsevier; 2007.

Costa G. Shift work and occupational medicine: an overview. Occupational medicine. 2003;53(2):83-8.

Wang Z, Wang J, Dong N, editors. Study and Application on Removal of Silica by Chemical Coagulation Process from the Oil field Produced Water Reused in Boiler. Power and Energy Engineering Conference (APPEEC), 2010 Asia-Pacific; 2010: IEEE.

Tuan C, Cheng Y, Yeh Y, Hsu L, Chen T. Performance assessment of a combined vacuum evaporator-Mechanical vapor re-compression technology to recover boiler blow-down wastewater and heat. Sustain Environ Res. 2013;23(2):139-29.

Kumar S, Katoria D, Sehgal D. Environment impact assessment of thermal power plant for sustainable development. International Journal of Environmental Engineering and Management. 2013;4(6):567-72.

Contreras GR, Dümmer W. Occupational medicine in Chile. International archives of occupational and environmental health. 1997;69(5):301-5.

Association FL. Tracking Report 2011 H&M, Turkey 440076258J. 2011.

Mohammadfam I, Sajedi A, Mahmoudi S, Mohammadfam F. Application of Hazard and Operability Study (HAZOP) in evaluation of health, safety and environmental (HSE) hazards. International Journal of occupational hygiene. 2015;4(2):17-20.

Lee H, Kim C, Cho H, Park Y. An ANP-based technology network for identification of core technologies: A case of telecommunication technologies. Expert Systems with Applications. 2009;36(1):894-908.

Wey W-M, Wu K-Y. Using ANP priorities with goal programming in resource allocation in transportation. Mathematical and computer modelling. 2007;46(7-8):985-1000.

Chen S-H, Lee H-T, Wu Y-F. Applying ANP approach to partner selection for strategic alliance. Management Decision. 2008;46(3):449-65.

Wu C-R, Chang C-W, Lin H-L. A fuzzy ANP-based approach to evaluate medical organizational performance. Information and Management Sciences. 2008;19(1):53-74.

Lin R-H. An integrated FANP–MOLP for supplier evaluation and order allocation. Applied Mathematical Modelling. 2009;33(6):2730-6.

Liu H-T, Tsai Y-l. A fuzzy risk assessment approach for occupational hazards in the construction industry. Safety science. 2012;50(4):1067-78.

Lam JSL, Lai K-h. Developing environmental sustainability by ANP-QFD approach: the case of shipping operations. Journal of Cleaner Production. 2015;105:275-84.

Shahroudi K, Rouydel H. Using a multi-criteria decision making approach (ANP-TOPSIS) to evaluate suppliers in Iran’s auto industry. International Journal of Applied Operational Research-An Open Access Journal. 2012;2(2):0-.

Hung S-J. Activity-based divergent supply chain planning for competitive advantage in the risky global environment: A DEMATEL-ANP fuzzy goal programming approach. Expert Systems with Applications. 2011;38(8):9053-62.

Baratchi M. Risk Assessessing and introducing HSE knowledge management Pattren in selected Hospitals of Tehran. Master thesis, Tehran: Faculty of Environment and Energy, Science and Research Brand- Islamic Azad University; 2017.

How to Cite
BARATCHI M, MANSOURI N, AHMADI A. Hazard Identification in Steam Boilers (Case Study: Farabi Hospital). Int J Occup Hyg. 10(3):172-179.
Original Article(s)