Evaluating the Microscope Users Occupational Health Status Considering Musculoskeletal Disorders and Visual Fatigue at Tehran University of Medical Sciences
A large number of specialists, technicians, and postgraduate students use microscopes in the laboratory for a long time and are at high risk for musculoskeletal disorders and eye fatigue. Long-time working with a microscope can be negatively affecting both the visual and musculoskeletal systems. This study was aimed to evaluate the occupational health status of microscope users in two dimensions of musculoskeletal problems and eye fatigue at Tehran University of Medical Sciences. A group of 40 microscope users at Tehran University of Medical Sciences was selected in this cross-sectional study. The instrument used in this study was the Eye Fatigue Questionnaire, Flicker Fusion System (PM-SS22881-Pars Madar Asia) for measuring eye fatigue, Nordic questionnaire, and Berg scale. Eye fatigue was measured in two stages before starting work and 60 minutes after work with a microscope. The Borg scale was used to compare the amount of discomfort and pain in the upper and lower limbs before and at the end of the work. The Nordic questionnaire was also used to assess the prevalence of musculoskeletal problems. The descriptive data were analyzed using paired T-test, and simple linear regression via SPSS software version 22. More than half of the users suffered from pain and discomfort in the neck, upper back, and shoulder. There were significant differences in the mean score of visual fatigue symptoms and the mean score of flicker value between two stages, respectively (P< 0.001). Simple regressions were obtained for changes in the questionnaire score (R² = 0.708). The correlation coefficient indicated an inverse and significant association of flicker value changes with changes in questionnaire scores and visual fatigue symptoms. A majority of the participants were experienced musculoskeletal disorders and visual fatigue. Early symptoms recognition could be an effective way to control the incidence of visual fatigue at higher levels among microscope users. In addition, ergonomic equipment and training may be useful to decrease most musculoskeletal disorders.
2. Fritzsche FR, Ramach C, Soldini D, Caduff R, Tinguely M, Cassoly E, et al. Occupational health risks of pathologists-results from a nationwide online questionnaire in Switzerland. BMC Public Health. 2012;12(1):1054.
3. Flavin RJ, Guerin M, O’Briain DS. Occupational problems with microscopy in the pathology laboratory. Virchows Archiv. 2010;457(4):509-11.
4. Jain G, Shetty P. Occupational concerns associated with regular use of microscope. International journal of occupational medicine and environmental health. 2014;27(4):591-8.
5. Darragh AR, Harrison H, Kenny S. Effect of an ergonomics intervention on workstations of microscope workers. The American Journal of Occupational Therapy. 2008;62(1):61.
6. Franco G. Health disorders and ergonomic concerns from the use of microscope: A voice from the past. 2011.
7. Helander M, Grossmith E, Prabhu P. Planning and implementation of microscope work. Applied ergonomics. 1991;22(1):36-42.
8. Vardanjani R, Habibi E, Zeinodini, An examination center of visual symtoms with fliker value change in video display terminal operators. 2014;16(1):20-11.
9. Wu S-P, Yang C-H, Ho C-P, Jane D-H. VDT screen height and inclination effects on visual and musculoskeletal discomfort for Chinese wheelchair users with spinal cord injuries. Industrial health. 2009;47(1):89-93.
10. Kreczy A, Kofler M, Gschwendtner A. Underestimated health hazard: proposal for an ergonomic microscope workstation. The Lancet. 1999;354(9191):1701-2.
11. Kofler M, Kreczy A, Gschwendtner A. " Occupational backache"–surface electromyography demonstrates the advantage of an ergonomic versus a standard microscope workstation. European journal of applied physiology. 2002;86(6):492-7.
12. George E. Occupational hazard for pathologists: microscope use and musculoskeletal disorders. American journal of clinical pathology. 2010;133(4):543-8.
13. Falaki H, Akbari H, Hannani M. Prevalence and postural risk factors associated with musculoskeletal disorders among medical laboratory personnel in Kashan in 2012. Iran Occupational Health. 2016;12(6).
14. HABIBI E, POURABDIAN S, RAJABI H, DEHGHAN H, MARACY MR. Development and validation of a visual fatigue questionnaire for video display terminal users. 2011.
15. Carlson S. Students complain about devices for reading E-book. Study Finds: The Chronicle of Higher Education [Online]. 2002.
16. Kang Y-Y, Wang M-JJ, Lin R. Usability evaluation of e-books. Displays. 2009;30(2):49-52.
17. Habibi E, Rajabi H, Pourabdian S, Development and Validation of a Visual Fatigue Questionnaire for Video Display Terminal Users.
18. Lin K-H, Su C-C, Chen Y-Y, Chu P-C. The Effects of Lighting Problems on Eye Symptoms among Cleanroom Microscope Workers. International journal of environmental research and public health. 2019;16(1):101.
19. Kumar DS, Anup G, Kulkarni P, Shabadi N, Murthy MN. Public health concern on occupational hazards among pathologists and microbiologists in Mysuru district, India. International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health. 2019;6(2):768-73.
20. GuptA AA, Mhaske SA, AhMAD MA, Yuwanati MB, Prabhu S, Pardhe N. Ergonomic microscope: need of the hour. Journal of clinical and diagnostic research: JCDR. 2015;9(5):ZC62.
21. Naik NR. PREVELANCE OF MUSCULOSKELETAL PROBLEMS AND AWARENESS ABOUT ERGONOMICS IN LABORATORY TECHNICIANS WORKING ON MICROSCOPE. International Journal of Physiotherapy and Research. 2017; 5(3).
Copyright (c) 2019 International Journal of Occupational Hygiene
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.