Design and Test of the Genuine Leadership Outcomes Model in a Military Unit

  • Mohammad Hossein Shojaee Rad Department of Psychology, Faculty of Education and Psychology, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran
  • Kioumars Beshlideh Department of Psychology, Faculty of Educational Sciences and Psychology, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran
  • Abdolzahra Naami Department of Psychology, Faculty of Educational Sciences and Psychology, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran
  • Seyed Esmael Hashemi Department of Psychology, Faculty of Educational Sciences and Psychology, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran
Keywords:
Genuine leadership, Ethical work environment, Organizational confidence, Organizational citizenship behavior, Psychological well-being, Job aspiration

Abstract

The present research was carried out with the aim of designing and testing a model of genuine leadership outcomes, where genuine leadership construct was selected as an antecedent variable; the constructs of organizational citizenship behavior, psychological well-being, and job aspiration as outcome variables and ethical and trust atmosphere constructs as mediation variables. For this purpose, 200 personnel of a military unit were selected by simple random sampling. The instruments of this study were including questionnaires of genuine leadership, ethical work atmosphere, organizational trust, organizational citizenship behavior, psychological well-being, and job aspiration. The data were analyzed through structural equation modeling (SEM) and intermediate analysis.  Modeling analyzes supported the structural equations considering the proposed model with the data.  The results indicated a direct positive effect of genuine leadership on ethical job environment, organizational trust, organizational citizenship behaviors, and job aspiration, a direct positive effect of ethical work environment on organizational citizenship behavior and job aspiration, a direct positive effect of organizational trust on organizational citizenship behavior and job aspiration, and an indirect positive effect of genuine leadership on organizational citizenship behavior and job aspiration through the ethical work environment and organizational trust. Based on the findings of this study, it can be concluded that organization administrators should pay special attention to identify, evaluate, and promote authentic leadership in their organizations. Therefore, it is suggested that the organizations should recruit authentic leaders, and should encourage, support, and develop this type of leadership in order to increase the productivity of the organizational performance.

References

1. Crawford K. Ex-Tycoceo Kozlowski found guilty. Available from http://money.cnn.com/2005/06/17/news/newsmakers/ tyco_trialoutcome/index.htm; 2005.
2. Henriques DB. Madoff is sentenced to 150 years for Ponzi scheme. Available from: https://www.ft.com/content/3c4b9ec2-6496-11de-a13f-00144feabdc; 2009.
3. Walumbwa FO, Avolio BJ, Gardner WL, Wernsing TS, Peterson, SJ. Authentic leadership: Development and validation of a theory-based measure. Journal of Management 2008; 34: 89-126.
4. Avolio BJ, Walumbwa, FO, Weber, TJ. Leadership: Current theories, research, and future directions. Annual Review of Psychology 2009; 60(1): 421-449.
5. George B. Authentic leadership: Rediscovering the secrets to creating lasting value. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass; 2003.
6. Clapp-Smith R, Vogelgesang GR, Avey JB. Authentic leadership and positive psychological capital the mediating role of trust at the group level of analysis. Journal of Leadership &Organizational Studies 2009; 15(3(: 227-240.
7. Hassan A, Ahmed F. Authentic leadership, trust and work engagement. International Journal of Human and Social Sciences 2011; 6(3): 164-170.
8. Kliuchnikov A. Leader’s Authenticity Influence on Followers’ Organizational Commitment. Emerging Leadership Journeys, 2011; 4(1): 70-90.
9. Thornhill KL. Authenticity and female leaders: A qualitative study exploring the leadership practices of female university administrator. Ph.D. Thesis in Psychology, Colorado State University, Colorado, United States; 2011.
10. Piran Nezhad A. Authentic leadership, a necessary style in universities management (case study: Payame Noor universities in Tehran & Alborz Provinces. Iranian Journal of Management in the Islamic University 2014; 2(6): 329-350.
11. Al Hassan S, Saher N, Zahid A, Gull H, Aslam I, Aslam S. Authentic leadership and ethical practices: Finding traces from Pakistani system. Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business 2013; 5(1): 406-423.
12. Arnaud A. Conceptualizing and measuring ethical work climate: Development and validation of the ethical climate index (ECI). Academy of Management Annual Meeting Proceedings 2006; 1: 1-6.
13. Luthans F, Avolio BJ. Authentic leadership development. In K. S. Cameron, J. E. Dutton, & R. E. Quinn (Eds.), Positive organizational scholarship (pp. 241-258). San Francisco: Barrett-Koehler; 2003.
14. McAlister DJ. Affect and cognition-based trust as foundations for interpersonal cooperation in organizations. Academy of Management Journal 1995; 38(1): 24-59.
15. Avolio BJ, Gardner WL. Authentic leadership development getting to the root of positive for ms of leadership. The Leadership Quarterly 2005; 16(3): 315-338.
16. Ilies R, Morgeson FP, Nahrgang, JD. Authentic leadership and eudemonic well-being: Understanding leader-follower outcomes. The Leadership Quarterly 2005; 16: 373-394.
17. Spreitzer GM, Mishra AK. To stay or to go: voluntary survivor turnover following an organizational downsizing. Journal of Organizational Behavior 2002; 23(6): 707-729.
18. Neider LL, Schriesheim CA. The Authentic Leadership Inventory (ALI). The Leadership Quarterly 2011; 22(6): 1146-1164.
19. Men LR. Internal reputation management: The impact of authentic leadership and transparent communication. Corporate Reputation Review 2014; 17, 254-272.
20. Schwepker Jr CH. Ethical climate’s relationship to job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and turnover intention in the salesforce. Journal of Business Research 2001; 54(1): 39-52.
21. Stewart R, Volpone SD, Avery DR, McKay P. (2011). You support diversity, but are you ethical? Examining the interactive effects of diversity and ethical climate perceptions on turnover intentions. Journal of Business Ethics 2011; 100(4): 581-593.
22. Arshadi N, Baharloo M, Montakhab-Yeganeh M. The direct and indirect effect of ethical climate on employees' emotional exhaustion: The mediating role of role conflict and trust in the supervisor. 3rd Biennial Congress of Industrial and Organizational Psychology of Iran 2012; 3: 34-36.
23. Moorman C, Deshpand R, Zaltman G. Factors affecting trust in market research relationships. Journal of Marketing 1992; 57(1): 81-101.
24. Smith CA, Organ DW, Near GP. Organizational citizenship behavior: Its nature and antecedents. Journal of Applied Psychology 1983; 68(4): 653-663.
25. Organ DW, Konovsky MA. Cognitive versus affective determinants of organizational citizenship behavior. Journal of Applied Psychology 1989; 74(1): 157-164.
26. Ashja A, Nouri A, Arizi H, Samavatyan H. To investigate the relationship of personnel's perceived organization justice and trust (organizational trust and trust in supervisor). Knowledge and Research in Applied Psychology 2009; 40: 1-12.
27. Ryff CD. Happiness is everything, or is it? Explorations on the meaning of psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 1989; 57(6): 1069-1081.
28. Arshadi N. Designing and testing a model of important antecedents and consequences of job motivation in staff in National Iranian South Oil Company (NISOC) in Ahvaz. Ph.D. Thesis in Psychology, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz; 2007.
29. Bakker AB, Demerouti E. Towards a model of work engagement. Career Development International 2008; 13(3): 209-223.
30. Taghipour A. Investigating the causal relationship between organizational culture, job motivation, job motivation, and innovative behaviors mediated by psychological empowerment in the staff of National Iranian Drilling Company. M.A. Thesis in Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz; 2010.
31. Avolio, BJ, Griffith J, Wernsing TS, Walumbwa FO. What is authentic leadership development? In P. A. Linley, S. Arrington, & N. Garcea (Eds.), Oxford handbook of positive psychology and work (pp. 39-51). New York, NY: Oxford University Press; 2010.
32. Trevino LK, Butterfield KD, McCabe, DL. (1998). The ethical context in organizations: Influences on employee attitudes and behaviors. Business Ethics Quarterly 1998; 18(3): 447-476.
33. Victor B, Cullen JB. The organizational bases of ethical work climates. Administrative Science Quarterly 1988; 33(1): 101-125.
34. Rousseau DM, Parks, IM. The Contracts of Individuals and Organizations. Research in Organizational Behavior 1993, 15: 41-43.
35. Avolio BJ, Gardner WL, Walumbwa FO, Luthans F, May DR. Unlocking the mask: A look at the process by which authentic leader's impact follower attitudes and behaviors. The Leadership Quarterly 2004; 16: 801-823.
36. Rog EJ. Managers' and Subordinates' Perceptions of Authentic Leadership, Subordinate Outcomes, & Mediating Mechanisms. Available from: https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Managers'-and-Subordinates'-Perceptions-of-%26-Rog/f53db87e85334db92413c28b57abdd381cb49b6c; 2011.
37. Theorell T, Bernin P, Nyberg A, Oxenstierna G, Romanowska J, Westerlund H. Leadership and employee health: A challenge in the contemporary workplace. In J. Houdmont & S. Leka (Eds.), Contemporary occupational healthy psychology: Global perspectives on research and practice (pp. 46-58). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley; 2010.
38. Handelman MM, Knapp S, Gottlieb, MS. Positive Ethics, in C. R. Synder and S. J. Lopez (Eds.), Handbook of Positive Psychology. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2002.
39. Maleki R. The impact of transformational leadership skills training, job desire and job self-efficacy on managers of national Iranian gas company. M.A. Thesis in Organizational Industrial Psychology, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz; 2012.
40. shakerinia I. The ethical climate relationships with organizational supports in oorganizational behaviors of nurses in public hospitals in Rasht province. Journal of Hospital 2012; 11(1): 19-28.
41. Golparvar M, Javadian Z, Mohammad R, Alimardani S. Ethical climate and deviant and organizational citizenship behaviors: The new motivational approach to justice compensation and organizational justice. Ethics in Science and Technology 2013; 7(4): 41-53.
42. Mulki JP, Jaramillo F, Locander WB. Effects of ethical climate and supervisory trust on salesperson’s job attitudes and intentions to quit. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management 2006; 26(1): 19-26.
43. Greenberg J. A taxonomy of organizational justice theories. Academy of Management Review 1987; 12(1): 9-22.
44. Wat D, Shaffer M. Equity and relationship quality influences on organizational citizenship behaviors. The mediating role of trust in the supervisor and empowerment. Personnel Review 2005; 34(4): 406-422.
45. Podsakoff MD, Machenzie BS, Paine JB, Bachrach DG. Organizational citizenship behaviors: A critical review of the theatrical and empirical literature and suggestions for future research. Journal of Management 2000; 26(3): 513-563.
46. Clark MC, Payne RL. The nature and structure of workers trust in management. Journal of Organizational Behavior 1987; 18(3): 205-224.
47. Mayer RC, Gavin MB. Trust in management and performance: Who minds the shop while employees watch the boss?. Academy of Management Journal 2005; 48(5): 874-888.
48. Velez P. Effects of organizational trust. Ph.D. Thesis in Philosophy in Nursing, University of San Diego, San Diego; 2006.
49. Saks AM. Antecedents and consequences of employee engagement. J Managerial Psychology 2006; 21(7): 600-619.
50. Wellin R, Concelman J. Creating a culture for engagement: Workforce performance solutions. Available from: www.ddiworld.com/pdf/wps_engagement; 2005.
51. Gardner WL, Schermerhorn JR. Unleashing individual potential: Performance gains through positive organizational behavior and authentic leadership. Organizational Dynamics 2004; 33(3): 270-281.
52. Hughes LW. Transparency, translucence or opacity? An experimental study of the impact of a leader’s relational transparency and style of humor delivery on follower creative performance. Ph.D. Thesis in Psychology, University of Nebraska, Nebraska; 2005.
53. Harter JK, Schmidt FL, Hayes TL. (2002). Business-unit level relationship between employee satisfaction, employee engagement, and business outcomes: A meta-analysis. J Applied Psychology 2002; 87(2): 268-79.
Published
2019-12-22
How to Cite
1.
Shojaee Rad MH, Beshlideh K, Naami A, Hashemi SE. Design and Test of the Genuine Leadership Outcomes Model in a Military Unit. Int J Occup Hyg. 11(4):271-282.
Section
Original Article(s)