The epidemiological prevalence of fungal infections among operating personnel in a petroleum refinery under warm and humid condition

  • saeid yazdanirad
  • rohaldin moradirad
  • mohammad zeiniodini
  • mahdi mousavi
Keywords:
Epidemiological prevalence, fungal infections, operating personnel, petroleum refinery

Abstract

Introduction

Infectious diseases are one of the most important health and economic problems in the world, especially in developing countries. Hence, the present study was aimed to investigate the epidemiological prevalence and predict the effective factors on the fungal infections among the operating personnel in an petroleum refinery from south of Iran under warm and humid condition.

Methods

Of all 200 people included in the study, five parts of the body from each person including the auricle, ear canal, foot toes, foot palm, and foot nail were sampled. After sampling, the collected samples were transported into a laboratory and cultured in a culture medium for three weeks under thermal conditions of 25 centigrade in an incubator. In the next step, the grown fungi were detected using the colony examination and fungal characteristics of staining with lactophenol cotton blue, and the slide culture method. As well as, air temperature and relative humidity were measured using a WBGT. In final, data were analyzed using SPPSS software version 22.

Results

The mean and standard deviation of the air temperature and relative humidity in the operating units were 39.2 ± 7.34 degree of Celsius and 75.8 ± 15.31 percent, respectively. Of 200 samples cultured in the laboratory, 188 showed negative culture results and 12 samples had positive culture results. The fungal infections were founded in measured body parts of some people including the auricle of four subjects, ear canal of nine subjects, foot toes of five subjects, foot palm of six subjects, and foot nail of twelve subjects. Of 1000 isolated samples, 15 cases had been infected with trichophyton, eight cases with onychomycosis, six cases with aspergillus, four subjects with Candiais, and three cases with microsporum harborum.

Conclusion

Based on the results, trichophyton are most common fungal infections. As well as, foot nail and ear canal areas were founded as most prevalence of places with the infections.

References

1. Arya J, Prausnitz MR. Microneedle patches for vaccination in developing countries. Journal of Controlled Release. 2016;240:135-41.
2. Franc K, Krecek R, Häsler B, Arenas-Gamboa A. Brucellosis remains a neglected disease in the developing world: a call for interdisciplinary action. BMC public health. 2018;18(1):125.
3. Liu Y-C, Zhou S-H, Ling L. Aetiological factors contributing to the development of primary laryngeal aspergillosis in immunocompetent patients. Journal of medical microbiology. 2010;59(10):1250-3.
4. Abdollahzadeh G, Sharifzadeh MS, Damalas CA. Perceptions of the beneficial and harmful effects of pesticides among Iranian rice farmers influence the adoption of biological control. Crop Protection. 2015;75:124-31.
5. Rim K-T, Lim C-H. Biologically hazardous agents at work and efforts to protect workers' health: a review of recent reports. Safety and health at work. 2014;5(2):43-52.
6. Loomis D, Guha N, Hall AL, Straif K. Identifying occupational carcinogens: an update from the IARC Monographs. Occupational and environmental medicine. 2018;75(8):593-603.
7. Lipińska-Ojrzanowska A, Wittczak T, Krzyczmanik D, Pałczyński C, Walusiak-Skorupa J. Invasion by trichinae in the patient hospitalized with suspicion of occupational borreliosis: a case report. Medycyna pracy. 2011;62(1):73-6.
8. Levin BW, Browner CH. The social production of health: Critical contributions from evolutionary, biological, and cultural anthropology. Social Science & Medicine. 2005;61(4):745-50.
9. Outerbridge CA. Mycologic disorders of the skin. Clinical techniques in small animal practice. 2006;21(3):128-34.
10. Longo AV, Zamudio KR. Temperature variation, bacterial diversity and fungal infection dynamics in the amphibian skin. Molecular ecology. 2017;26(18):4787-97.
11. Hahnel E, Lichterfeld A, Blume-Peytavi U, Kottner J. The epidemiology of skin conditions in the aged: a systematic review. Journal of tissue viability. 2017;26(1):20-8.
12. Zamani S, Sadeghi G, Yazdinia F, Moosa H, Pazooki A, Ghafarinia Z, et al. Epidemiological trends of dermatophytosis in Tehran, Iran: A five-year retrospective study. Journal de mycologie medicale. 2016;26(4):351-8.
13. Mikaeili A, Zandian M, Rezaei M. Fungal Infections Among Patients with Immunodeficiency Presenting to Medical Mycology Lab of Special Clinic of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences (2013-2014). Journal of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences. 2018;22(2).
14. Alangaden GJ. Nosocomial fungal infections: epidemiology, infection control, and prevention. Infectious Disease Clinics. 2011;25(1):201-25.
15. Wilson LS, Reyes CM, Stolpman M, Speckman J, Allen K, Beney J. The direct cost and incidence of systemic fungal infections. Value in Health. 2002;5(1):26-34.
16. Gao C, Kuklane K, Östergren P-O, Kjellstrom T. Occupational heat stress assessment and protective strategies in the context of climate change. International journal of biometeorology. 2018;62(3):359-71.
17. Cerná K, Wittlingerova Z, Zimová M, Janovský Z. Exposure to airborne fungi during sorting of recyclable plastics in waste treatment facilities. Medycyna pracy. 2017;68(1):1.
18. Jannati B, Zarrinfar H, Salehi M, Sobhani R, Fata AA. Prevalence of Superficial and Cutaneous Mycoses of Neyshabur City during Five Years, a Retrospective Study. Journal of Paramedical Sciences & Rehabilitation. 2016;5(1):66-72.
19. Khazaei M, Mehbod A, Farhadpour A, Didehdar M, Rafiei M. Prevalence of fungal and fungal like superficial infections in paitents who refered to skin clinic of Arak University of Medical Science. 2011.
20. Rezaei-Matehkolaei A, Rafiei A, Makimura K, Gräser Y, Gharghani M, Sadeghi-Nejad B. Epidemiological aspects of dermatophytosis in Khuzestan, southwestern Iran, an update. Mycopathologia. 2016;181(7-8):547-53.
21. Rashidian S, Falahati M, Kordbacheh P, Mahmoudi M, Safara M, Tafti HS, et al. A study on etiologic agents and clinical manifestations of dermatophytosis in Yazd, Iran. Current medical mycology. 2015;1(4):20.
22. Hashemi S, Gerami M, Zibafar E, Daei M, Moazeni M, Nasrollahi A. Onychomycosis in Tehran: mycological study of 504 patients. Mycoses. 2010;53(3):251.
23. Panasiti V, Devirgiliis V, Borroni R, Mancini M, Curzio M, Rossi M, et al. Epidemiology of dermatophytic infections in Rome, Italy: a retrospective study from 2002 to 2004. Medical mycology. 2007;45(1):57-60.
24. Ashraf M, Azarpira N, Badiee P, Khademi B, Shishegar M. Fungal characterization using polymerase chain reaction in patients with fungal sinusitis. Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology. 2011;54(2):415.
25. Hosein Afsarian M, Shokohi T, Arzanlou M, Taheri Sarvtin M, Badali H. Phaeohyphomycosis due to Dematiaceous Fungi; A Review of the Literature. Journal of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences (JMUMS). 2012;22(92).
26. Koksal F, Er E, Samasti M. Causative agents of superficial mycoses in Istanbul, Turkey: retrospective study. Mycopathologia. 2009;168(3):117-23.
27. Molabagheri M, Moazami A. Bacterial Contamination Rate of Nurses’ White Coats in Different Wards of Sirjan Hospitals in 2017: A Short Report. Journal of Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences. 2018;16(12):1175-82.
28. Mousavi S, Jafari F, Jamali M. A study of occupational exposure to biological hazards among the staff of Tehran Blood Transfusion Center. Scientific Journal of Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization. 2013;10(2).
29. Mantovani A. The role of animals in the epidemiology of the mycoses. Mycopathologia. 1978;65(1-3):61-6.
30. Moosavian sm, darvishnia m, Khosravinia H. Comparison of Growth of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus in Different Conditions of Temperature, Moisture and pH. Applied Researches in Plant Protection. 2017;6(2):37-47.
31. Fallahi A, Rezaei-Matehkolaei A, Rezaei S. Epidemiological status of dermatophytosis in Guilan, north of Iran. Current medical mycology. 2017;3(1):20-4.
32. Kaushik N, Pujalte GG, Reese ST. Superficial fungal infections. Primary Care: Clinics in Office Practice. 2015;42(4):501-16.
33. Ilkit M, Durdu M. Tinea pedis: the etiology and global epidemiology of a common fungal infection. Critical reviews in microbiology. 2015;41(3):374-88.
Published
2020-06-14
How to Cite
1.
yazdanirad saeid, moradirad rohaldin, zeiniodini mohammad, mousavi mahdi. The epidemiological prevalence of fungal infections among operating personnel in a petroleum refinery under warm and humid condition. Int J Occup Hyg. 11(4).
Section
Original Article(s)