Investigating the Prevalence of Fungal Infections among Operating Personnel at a Petroleum Refinery Complex on Warm and Humid Conditions
Infectious diseases are one of the most important health and economic problems in the world, especially in developing countries. Hence, the present study was aimed to investigate the epidemiological prevalence and predict the fungal infections’ effective factors among operating personnel at a petroleum refinery complex located in the south of Iran on warm and humid conditions. A group of 200 individuals was selected to collect fungal infections samples from five parts of their body including the auricle, ear canal, foot toes, foot palm, and foot nail. After sampling, the collected samples were transported into a laboratory and cultured in a culture medium for three weeks in thermal conditions of 25 centigrade on an incubator. In the next step, the grown fungi were detected using the colony examination and fungal characteristics of staining with lactophenol cotton blue, and the slide culture method. As well as, air temperature and relative humidity were measured using a WBGT. Data were analyzed finally using SPPSS software version 22.The mean and standard deviation of the air temperature and relative humidity in the operating units were 39.2 ± 7.34 Celsius degrees and 75.8 ± 15.31 percent, respectively. Of 200 samples cultured in the laboratory, 188 showed negative culture results and 12 samples had positive culture results. The fungal infections were founded in measured body parts of some people including the auricle of four subjects, ear canal of nine subjects, foot toes of five subjects, foot palm of six subjects, and foot nail of twelve subjects. Of 1000 isolated samples, 15 cases had been infected with trichophyton, eight cases with onychomycosis, six cases with aspergillus, four subjects with Candiais, and three cases with microsporum harborum. Based on the results, trichophyton were the most common fungal infections. As well as, foot nail and ear canal areas were founded as the most prevalence of places with the infections.
2 Franc K, Krecek R, Häsler B, Arenas-Gamboa A. Brucellosis remains a neglected disease in the developing world: a call for interdisciplinary action. BMC public health. 2018;18(1):125.
3 Liu Y-C, Zhou S-H, Ling L. Aetiological factors contributing to the development of primary laryngeal aspergillosis in immunocompetent patients. Journal of medical microbiology. 2010;59(10):1250-3.
4 Abdollahzadeh G, Sharifzadeh MS, Damalas CA. Perceptions of the beneficial and harmful effects of pesticides among Iranian rice farmers influence the adoption of biological control. Crop Protection. 2015;75:124-31.
5 Rim K-T, Lim C-H. Biologically hazardous agents at work and efforts to protect workers' health: a review of recent reports. Safety and health at work. 2014;5(2):43-52.
6 Loomis D, Guha N, Hall AL, Straif K. Identifying occupational carcinogens: an update from the IARC Monographs. Occupational and environmental medicine. 2018;75(8):593-603.
7 Lipińska-Ojrzanowska A, Wittczak T, Krzyczmanik D, Pałczyński C, Walusiak-Skorupa J. Invasion by trichinae in the patient hospitalized with suspicion of occupational borreliosis: a case report. Medycyna pracy. 2011;62(1):73-6.
8 Levin BW, Browner CH. The social production of health: Critical contributions from evolutionary, biological, and cultural anthropology. Social Science & Medicine. 2005;61(4):745-50.
9 Outerbridge CA. Mycologic disorders of the skin. Clinical techniques in small animal practice. 2006;21(3):128-34.
10 Longo AV, Zamudio KR. Temperature variation, bacterial diversity and fungal infection dynamics in the amphibian skin. Molecular ecology. 2017;26(18):4787-97.
11 Hahnel E, Lichterfeld A, Blume-Peytavi U, Kottner J. The epidemiology of skin conditions in the aged: a systematic review. Journal of tissue viability. 2017;26(1):20-8.
12 Zamani S, Sadeghi G, Yazdinia F, Moosa H, Pazooki A, Ghafarinia Z, et al. Epidemiological trends of dermatophytosis in Tehran, Iran: A five-year retrospective study. Journal de mycologie medicale. 2016;26(4):351-8.
13 Mikaeili A, Zandian M, Rezaei M. Fungal Infections Among Patients with Immunodeficiency Presenting to Medical Mycology Lab of Special Clinic of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences (2013-2014). Journal of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences. 2018;22(2).
14 Alangaden GJ. Nosocomial fungal infections: epidemiology, infection control, and prevention. Infectious Disease Clinics. 2011;25(1):201-25.
15 Wilson LS, Reyes CM, Stolpman M, Speckman J, Allen K, Beney J. The direct cost and incidence of systemic fungal infections. Value in Health. 2002;5(1):26-34.
16 Koksal F, Er E, Samasti M. Causative agents of superficial mycoses in Istanbul, Turkey: retrospective study. Mycopathologia. 2009;168(3):117-23.
17 Afshari M, Kachuei R, Riazipour M. Cutaneous and superficial fungal diseases in military training camps of Tehran. Journal Mil Med. 2009;11(1):45-9. [ In Persian].
18 Tan H-H. Superficial fungal infections seen at the National Skin Centre, Singapore. Nippon Ishinkin Gakkai Zasshi. 2005;46(2):77-80.
19 Gao C, Kuklane K, Östergren P-O, Kjellstrom T. Occupational heat stress assessment and protective strategies in the context of climate change. International Journal of biometeorology. 2018;62(3):359-71.
20 Cerná K, Wittlingerova Z, Zimová M, Janovský Z. Exposure to airborne fungi during sorting of recyclable plastics in waste treatment facilities. Medycyna pracy. 2017;68(1):1.
21 Jannati B, Zarrinfar H, Salehi M, Sobhani R, Fata AA. Prevalence of Superficial and Cutaneous Mycoses of Neyshabur City during Five Years, a Retrospective Study. Journal of Paramedical Sciences & Rehabilitation. 2016;5(1):66-72.
22 Silva-Rocha W, De AZeVeDO M, Chaves G. Epidemiology and fungal species distribution of superficial mycoses in Northeast Brazil. Journal de mycologie medicale. 2017;27(1):57-64.
23 Mousavi S, Jafari F, Jamali M. A study of occupational exposure to biological hazards among the staff of Tehran Blood Transfusion Center. Scientific Journal of Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization. 2013;10(2):163-172. [In Persian].
24 Khazaei M, Mehbod A, Farhadpour A, Didehdar M, Rafiei M. Prevalence of fungal and fungal like superficial infections in paitents who refered to skin clinic of Arak University of Medical Science. Annals of Military and Health Sciences Research. 2011;9(1):40-43.
25 Rezaei-Matehkolaei A, Rafiei A, Makimura K, Gräser Y, Gharghani M, Sadeghi-Nejad B. Epidemiological aspects of dermatophytosis in Khuzestan, southwestern Iran, an update. Mycopathologia. 2016;181(7-8):547-53.
26 Rashidian S, Falahati M, Kordbacheh P, Mahmoudi M, Safara M, Tafti HS, et al. A study on etiologic agents and clinical manifestations of dermatophytosis in Yazd, Iran. Current medical mycology. 2015;1(4):20.
27 Hashemi S, Gerami M, Zibafar E, Daei M, Moazeni M, Nasrollahi A. Onychomycosis in Tehran: mycological study of 504 patients. Mycoses. 2010;53(3):251.
28 Panasiti V, Devirgiliis V, Borroni R, Mancini M, Curzio M, Rossi M, Bottoni U, Calvieri S. Epidemiology of dermatophytic infections in Rome, Italy: a retrospective study from 2002 to 2004. Medical mycology. 2007;45(1):57-60.
29 Molabagheri M, Moazami A. Bacterial Contamination Rate of Nurses’ White Coats in Different Wards of Sirjan Hospitals in 2017: A Short Report. Journal of Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences. 2018;16(12):1175-82. [In Persian].
30 Mantovani A. The role of animals in the epidemiology of the mycoses. Mycopathologia. 1978;65(1-3):61-6.
31 Moosavian sm, darvishnia m, Khosravinia H. Comparison of Growth of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus in Different Conditions of Temperature, Moisture and pH. Applied Researches in Plant Protection. 2017;6(2):37-47.
32 Fallahi A, Rezaei-Matehkolaei A, Rezaei S. Epidemiological status of dermatophytosis in Guilan, north of Iran. Current medical mycology. 2017;3(1):20-4.
33 Mousavi SM, Abbasi M, Yazdanirad S, Yazdanirad M, Khatooni E. Fuzzy AHP-TOPSIS method as a technique for prioritizing noise control solutions. Noise Control Engineering Journal. 2019;67(6):415-21.
34 Jahangiri M, Molaei Far H, Honarbaksh M, Farhadi P, Khani B, Rajabi F. Prioritizing strategies of skin exposure with chemical in a painting company using fuzzy analytical hierarchy process & Topsis. Journal of Health and Safety at Work. 2019;8(4):409-18. [In Persian].
35 Monazzam Esmaielpour MR, Laal F, Majlessi F, Fallah Madvari R, Rahimi Foroushani A, Fallah Madvari A. Investigating the effect of increasing duration time of using the protective device on hearing loss among tile industry workers: Application of the BASNEF education model. Journal of Health and Safety at Work. 2017;7(4):319-28. [In Persian].
36 Mohammadi S, Ghajari H, Valizade R, Ghaderi N, Yousefi F, Taymoori P, Nouri B. Predictors of smoking among the secondary high school boy students based on the health belief model. International journal of preventive medicine. 2017;8:24-29.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.