A Multivariate Statistical Approach to Determine the Most Effective Factors for Biological Monitoring of Pesticides Using Voltammetric Sensors
Despite the wide use of pesticides, there are increasing concerns about their occupational and environmental adverse effects. Therefore, it is very important to develop reliable methods for pesticides detection, extraction, and quantification in different samples. This study was aimed to develop an electrochemical nano-composite sensor based on molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) for selective determination of pesticides. After synthesizing the MIPs and non-imprinted polymers (NIPs) for diazinon and dicloran pesticides, they were applied in the composition of carbon paste electrode. A fractional 28 factorial design was used to evaluate the effects of variables on the sensor response using the square wave voltammetry (SWV).
Very high recognition abilities were achieved using MIP-CP electrodes compared to the NIP-CP ones. The linear ranges obtained for diazinon and dicloran were 5×10-10 to 1×10-6, 1×10-9 to 1×10-6 mol L-1, and detection limits were 2.7×10-10 and 4.1×10-10 mol L-1, respectively. Modified sensors provided the prominent selectivity and sensitivity for quantification of pesticides in urine and water real samples, under optimized conditions. No special sample pre-treatment was required prior to the analysis. The experimental design verified the existence of interaction between factors. The variables including square wave frequency, square wave amplitude, and deposition potential indicated more significant effects on the sensor response than the other factors. In conclusion, besides the main effects, evaluation of the interaction between the variables is very important to look for the optimum conditions for pesticides analysis by voltammetric sensors.
. Theodoros AS, Stefanou SE, Alfons LO, Economic Sustainability, Biodiversity Loss and Socially Optimal Pesticide Use. Business Economics Group, Wageningen University, the Netherlands. Seventh Framework Programm, Theme 2. Food, Agriculture and Fisheries, and Biotechnology. 2009.
. Grimalt S, Dehouck P, Review of analytical methods for the determination of pesticide residues in grapes Susana. Journal of Chromatography A 2016; 1433: 1-23
. Lin MS, Jan BI, Leu HJ, Lin JS, Trace measurement of dithiocarbamate based pesticide by adsorptive stripping voltammetry. Anal Chim Acta 1999; 388: 111-117.
. El-Mhammed MA, Bakasse M, Chtaini A, Electrochemical studies and square wave voltammetry of paraquat at natural phosphate modified carbon paste electrode. J Hazard Mater 2007; 145: 1-7.
. Carro AM, Lorenzo RA, Simultaneous optimization of the solid-phase extraction of ganochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides using the desirability function. Analyst 2001; 126: 1005-1010.
. Beltran J, Lopez FJ, Hernandez F, Solid-phase microextraction in pesticide residue analysis. Journal of Chromatography A 2000; 885: 389–404
. Beltran J, Peruga A, Pitarch F, Lopez FJ, Hernandez. Application of solid-phase microextraction for the determination of pyrethroid residues in vegetable samples by GC-MS. Anal Bioanal Chem 2003; 376:502–511
. Zamora-Sequeira R, Starbird-Pérez R, Rojas-Carillo O, Vargas-Villalobos S. What are the Main Sensor Methods for Quantifying Pesticides in Agricultural Activities? A Review. Molecules 2019; 24(14): 2659-2684.
. Zhao G, Guo Y, Sun X, Wang X, A System for Pesticide Residues Detection and Agricultural Products Traceability Based on Acetylcholinesterase Biosensor and Internet of Things. Int. J. Electrochem. Sci 2015;10: 3387–3399.
. Sajid M., Khaled Nazal M., Mansh M, Alsharaa A, Muhammad Sajid Jillani S, Basheer C, Chemically modified electrodes for electrochemical detection of dopamine in the presence of uric acid and ascorbic acid: A review. TrAC Trends in Analytical Chemistry2016; 76: 15–29.
. Rios A, Escarpa A, Simonet B, Miniaturization of Analytical Systems: Principles, Designs and Applications, John Wiley & Sons. 2009.
. Jirasirichote A, Punrat E, Suea-Ngam A, Chailapakul O, Chuanuwatanakul S, Voltammetric detection of carbofuran determination using screen-printed carbon electrodes modified with gold nanoparticles and graphene oxide. Talanta 2017; 175: 331-337
. Koohpaei AR, Shahtaheri SJ, Ganjali MR, Rahimi Forushani A, Golbabaei F, Application of multivariate analysis to the screening of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) for ametryn. Talanta 2008; 75: 978-986
. Alizadeh T, Ganjali MR, Norouzi P, Zare M, Zeraatka A, A novel high selective and sensitive para-nitrophenol voltammetric sensor, based on a molecularly imprinted polymer-carbon paste electrode. Talanta 2009; 79: 1197-1203.
. Liu B, Cang H, Jin J, Molecularly Imprinted Polymers Based Electrochemical Sensor for 2,4-Dichlorophenol Determination. Polymers 2016; 8: 309-317
. Whitcombe MJ, Chianella I, Larcombe L, Piletsky SA, Noble J, Porter R, Horgan A, The rational development of molecularly imprinted polymer-based sensors for protein detection. Chem Soc Rev 2011; 40: 1547-71.
. Rajkumar R, Warsinke A, Mohwald H, Scheller FW, Katterle M, Analysis of recognition of fructose by imprinted polymers. Talanta 2008; 76:1119-23.
. Khadem M, Faridbod F, Norouzi P, Rahimi Foroushani A, Ganjali MR, Shahtaheri SJ, Yarahmadi R, Modification of Carbon Paste Electrode Based on Molecularly Imprinted Polymer for Electrochemical Determination of Diazinon in Biological and Environmental Samples. Electroanalysis 2017; 29: 708-715.
. Khadem M, Faridbod F, Norouzi P, Rahimi Foroushani A, Ganjali MR, Shahtaheri SJ, Biomimetic electrochemical sensor based on molecularly imprinted polymer for dicloran pesticide determination in biological and environmental samples. J Iran Chem Soc 2016; 13: 2077–2084.
. Safaa Noori J, Mortensen J, Geto A, Recent Development on the Electrochemical Detection of Selected Pesticides: A Focused Review. Sensors (Basel) 2020; 20: 2221-2236
. Nia Y, Qiua P, Kokotb S, Simultaneous determination of three organophosphorus pesticides by differential pulse stripping voltammetry and chemometrics. Analytica Chimica Acta 2004; 516: 7–17
. Vujic Z, Mulavdic N, Smajic M, Brboric J, Stankovic P, Simultaneous Analysis of Irbesartan and Hydrochlorothiazide: An Improved HPLC Method with the Aid of a Chemometric Protocol. Molecules 2012; 17: 3461-3474
. Carpignano R, Operti L, Rabezzana R, Angelo Vaglio G, Chemometric Approach to Evaluate the Parameters Affecting the Determination of Reaction Rate Constants by Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry, J Am Soc Mass Spectrom 1998; 9: 938–944.
. Lu B, Xia J, Wang Z, Zhang F, Yang M, Li Y, Xia Y, Molecularly imprinted electrochemical sensor based on an electrode modified with an imprinted pyrrole film immobilized on a b-cyclodextrin/gold nanoparticles/graphene layer. RSC Adv 2015; 5: 82930–82935.
. Figueiredo L, Erny GL, Santos L, Alves A. Applications of molecularly imprinted polymers to the analysis and Removal of personal care products: A review. Talanta 2016; 146: 754–765
. Teofilo RF, Reis EL, Reis CA, da Silva G, Kubotab LT, Experimental Design Employed to Square Wave Voltammetry Response Optimization for the Glyphosate Determination, J Braz. Chem Soc 2004; 15: 865-871.
. Daud N, Nabila Kamaruddin NK, Sulaiman S, Syono MI, Electrochemical Detection of Arsenic Using Modified Platinum-Cobalt Electrode, Int J Chem Eng Appl 2016; 7: 264-268.
. ReddyPrasad P, Ofamaja AE, Nageswara Reddy C, Naidoo EB, Square Wave Voltammetric Detection of Dimethylvinphos and Naftalofos in Food and Environmental Samples Using RGO/CS modified Glassy Carbon Electrode. Int J Electrochem Sci 2016; 11: 65 – 79.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.