Original Article

Development of a Tool for Environmental Performance Evaluation in Ports: A Case Study based on the Delphi Technique in Port Environment


Ports as one the most important parts of the maritime transport system play a paramount role in world trade. The set of designed and implemented processes in ports can significantly impact the surrounding environment. Therefore, the environmental consequences associated with a variety of activities and processes in ports can threaten sustainable global development. Thus, this study was designed and conducted with the aim of developing a tool for environmental performance evaluation in ports. Twenty-five experts in the field of environment and marine sciences participated in the present study. The study was conducted in three rounds based on the Delphi technique in the years 2019-2020. The index of coefficient variation (CV) and acceptance criteria for each of the parameters in this study were considered <20% and 4≤, respectively. The validity of this tool was evaluated using the content validity index (CVI) and content validity ratio (CVR). In addition, its reliability was evaluated using Cronbach's alpha coefficient. CV index in the third round of this Delphi was 0.08. Therefore, the green ports performance evaluation questionnaire was developed with six factors and 32 parameters after three Delphi rounds. These six factors of environmental performance included reactive performance (5 parameters), proactive performance (5 parameters), sustainability (5 parameters), socio-cultural (6 parameters), economic (5 parameters), and governance (6 parameters). The results of the validity evaluation showed that the CVR and CVI of this developed questionnaire were 0.875 and 0.906, respectively. In addition, based on Cronbach's alpha coefficient, the reliability of this tool was estimated to be α=0.92. The findings indicated that the developed tool for evaluating the environmental performance in ports had good validity and reliability. Therefore, this tool can be used as an acceptable estimator of the ports’ environmental performance in the maritime transport system.

1. Fruth M, Teuteberg F. Digitization in maritime logistics—What is there and what is missing? Cogent Business & Management. 2017;4(1):1411066.
2. Shi W, Li KX. Themes and tools of maritime transport research during 2000-2014. Maritime Policy & Management. 2017;44(2):151-69.
3. Lam JSL, Cullinane KPB, Lee PT-W. The 21st-century Maritime Silk Road: challenges and opportunities for transport management and practice. Taylor & Francis; 2018.
4. Poulsen RT, Ponte S, Sornn-Friese H. Environmental upgrading in global value chains: The potential and limitations of ports in the greening of maritime transport. Geoforum. 2018;89:83-95.
5. Lee PT-W, Kwon OK, Ruan X. Sustainability challenges in maritime transport and logistics industry and its way ahead. Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute; 2019.
6. Monios J, Wilmsmeier G. Deep adaptation to climate change in the maritime transport sector–a new paradigm for maritime economics? Maritime Policy & Management. 2020:1-20.
7. Grant-Smith D. Maritime transport and the climate change challenge. Taylor & Francis; 2014.
8. Asariotis R, Benamara H. Maritime transport and the climate change challenge: Routledge; 2012.
9. Woo J-K, Moon DS, Lam JSL. The impact of environmental policy on ports and the associated economic opportunities. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice. 2018;110:234-42.
10. Jägerbrand AK, Brutemark A, Svedén JB, Gren M. A review on the environmental impacts of shipping on aquatic and nearshore ecosystems. Science of the Total Environment. 2019;695:133637.
11. Shi W, Xiao Y, Chen Z, McLaughlin H, Li KX. Evolution of green shipping research: themes and methods. Maritime Policy & Management. 2018;45(7):863-76.
12. Lam JSL, Li KX. Green port marketing for sustainable growth and development. Transport Policy. 2019;84:73-81.
13. Gonzalez-Aregall M, Bergqvist R. Green port initiatives for a more sustainable port-city interaction: the case study of Barcelona. Maritime

transport and regional sustainability: Elsevier; 2020. p. 109-32.
14. Oniszczuk-Jastrząbek A, Pawłowska B, Czermański E, editors. Polish sea ports and the Green Port concept. SHS Web of Conferences; 2018: EDP Sciences.
15. Braga AL, Zanobetti A, Schwartz J. The effect of weather on respiratory and cardiovascular deaths in 12 US cities. Environmental health perspectives. 2002;110(9):859-63.
16. Teerawattana R, Yang Y-C. Environmental performance indicators for green port policy evaluation: case study of Laem Chabang port. The Asian Journal of Shipping and Logistics. 2019;35(1):63-9.
17. Marzantowicz Ł, Dembińska I. The reasons for the implementation of the concept of green port in sea ports of China. Logistics and Transport. 2018;37:121-8.
18. Ahmadi M, Zakerian SA, Salmanzadeh H, Mortezapour A. Identification of the ergonomic interventions goals from the viewpoint of ergonomics experts of Iran using Fuzzy Delphi Method. International Journal of Occupational Hygiene. 2016;8(3):151-7.
19. Shi C, Zhang Y, Li C, Li P, Zhu H. Using the Delphi Method to Identify Risk Factors Contributing to Adverse Events in Residential Aged Care Facilities. Risk Management and Healthcare Policy. 2020;13:523-37.
20. Mohammadbeigi A, Mohammadsalehi N, Aligol M. Validity and reliability of the instruments and types of measurments in health applied researches. Journal of rafsanjan university of medical sciences. 2015;13(12):1153-70.
21. Heale R, Twycross A. Validity and reliability in quantitative studies. Evidence-based nursing. 2015;18(3):66-7.
22. Hiranandani V. Sustainable development in seaports: a multi-case study. WMU Journal of Maritime Affairs. 2014;13(1):127-72.
23. Sheu J-B, Hu T-L, Lin S-R. THE KEY FACTORS OF GREEN PORT IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT. Pakistan Journal of Statistics. 2013;29(5).
24. Shamaie A, Omidvari M, Lotfi FH. The Performance of HSE Management System Using Fuzzy Data Envelopment Analysis (FDEA) Model in the Smelting Industry. International Journal of Occupational Hygiene. 2019;11(1):41-57.
25. Wan C, Zhang D, Yan X, Yang Z. A novel model for the quantitative evaluation of green port development–A case study of major ports in China. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment. 2018;61:431-43.
26. Yang Y-C. Operating strategies of CO2 reduction for a container terminal based on carbon footprint perspective. Journal of Cleaner Production. 2017;141:472-80.
27. Svaetichin I, Inkinen T. Port waste management in the Baltic Sea area: A four port study on the legal requirements, processes and collaboration. Sustainability. 2017;9(5):699.
28. Song M-L, Fisher R, Wang J-L, Cui L-B. Environmental performance evaluation with big data: Theories and methods. Annals of Operations Research. 2018;270(1-2):459-72.
IssueVol 13 No 3 (2021) QRcode
SectionOriginal Article(s)
Environmental Performance Evaluation Green Port Maritime Transport system Delphi Technique

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
How to Cite
Ali Akbari A, Babaei Samiromi F, Arjmandi R, Shojaei M. Development of a Tool for Environmental Performance Evaluation in Ports: A Case Study based on the Delphi Technique in Port Environment. Int J Occup Hyg. 2021;13(3):266-278.