Original Article

Demographic and Occupational Risk FactorDemographic and Occupational Risk Factors of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome among Dental students in ths of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome among Dental students in their Final Year at King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

Abstract

Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a common peripheral compression neuropathy that accounts for 90% of all entrapment neuropathies. Dentists typically have a higher prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders including CTS. Currently, there is a lack of literature on CTS prevalence and risk factors among dentistry in Saudi Arabia. Our study was the first to examine the prevalence and the associated demographic and occupational factors of CTS among dental students. This cross-sectional study was conducted in the School of Dentistry at King Abdulaziz University. A total of 120 dental students in their final year were included. We used a validated self-administered questionnaire that included demographic data, work, medical history, and a modified Katz's hand diagram to assess the symptoms and occupational exposures. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were applied using SPSS software version 16. The prevalence of CTS among dental students was 13.3%. It was higher in females 10% compared to male 3.3%. There was a significant relationship between the body mass index (P= 0.03) with underweight category by having a higher prevalence of CTS. The use of finger pinch grip showed an inverse association with CTS (P=0.04). Other risk factors were not significantly associated with CTS. The prevalence of CTS among dental students was higher than the general population. However, many previously identified risk factors showed no significant association with CTS adding to the controversy of the contributing risk factors of this disease among dentistry. Finger pinch grip showed inverse association which was contrary to published literature. Future studies may include exposure time for each occupational risk factor preferably in a prospective cohort.

1. Harris-Adamson C, Eisen EA, Kapellusch J, Garg A, Hegmann KT, Thiese MS, Dale AM , Evanoff B, Burt S, Bao S, Silverstein B, Merlino L, Gerr F, Rempel D. Biomechanical risk factors for carpal tunnel syndrome: a pooled study of 2474 workers. Occup Environ Med. 2015; 72: 33-41.
2. Hamann C, Werner RA, Franzblau A, Rodgers PA, Siew C, Gruninger S. Prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome and median mononeuropathy among dentists. J Am Dent Assoc. 2001; 132: 163-170; quiz 223-164.
3. Goodson JT, DeBerard MS, Wheeler AJ, Colledge AL. Occupational and biopsychosocial risk factors for carpal tunnel syndrome. J Occup Environ Med. 2014; 56: 965-972.
4. Aroori S, Spence RA. Carpal tunnel syndrome. Ulster Med J. 2008; 77(1): 6-17.
5. Luckhaupt SE, Dahlhamer JM, Ward BW, Sweeney MH, Sestito JP, Calvert GM. Prevalence and work-relatedness of carpal tunnel syndrome in the working population, United States, 2010 National Health Interview Survey. Am J Ind Med. 2013; 56: 615-624.
6. Gorsche RG, Wiley JP, Renger RF, Brant RF, Gemer TY, Sasyniuk TM. Prevalence and incidence of carpal tunnel syndrome in a meat packing plant. Occup Environ Med. 1999; 56: 417-422.
7. Kim JY, Kim JI, Son JE, Yun SK. Prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome in meat and fish processing plants. J Occup Health. 2004; 46: 230-234.
8. Patil A, Rosecrance J, Douphrate D, Gilkey D. Prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome among dairy workers. Am J Ind Med. 2012; 55: 127-135.
9. Liu CW, Chen TW, Wang MC, Chen CH, Lee CL, Huang MH. Relationship between carpal tunnel syndrome and wrist angle in computer workers. Kaohsiung J Med Sci. 2003; 19:617-623.
10. Osorio AM, Ames RG, Jones J, Castorina J, Rempel D, Estrin W, Thompson D. Carpal tunnel syndrome among grocery store workers. Am J Ind Med. 1994; 25: 229-245.
11. Lindfors P, von Thiele U, Lundberg U. Work characteristics and upper extremity disorders in female dental health workers. J Occup Health. 2006; 48: 192-197.


12. Leggat PA, Smith DR. Musculoskeletal disorders self-reported by dentists in Queensland, Australia. Aust Dent J. 2006; 51: 324-327.
13. Myers HL, Myers LB. It's difficult being a dentist': stress and health in the general dental practitioner. Br Dent J. 2004; 197: 89-93; discussion 83; quiz 100-101.
14. Nunes IL, Bush PM. Work-related musculoskeletal disorders assessment and prevention. in: Nunes IL (Eds). Ergonomics-A Systems Approach. InTechOpen, USA, 2012; pp 1-30.
15. Bugajska J, Jedryka-Goral A, Sudol-Szopinska I, Tomczykiewicz K. Carpal tunnel syndrome in occupational medicine practice. Int J Occup Saf Ergon. 2007; 13: 29-38.
16. Barnhart S, Demers PA, Miller M, Longstreth WT, Jr., Rosenstock L. Carpal tunnel syndrome among ski manufacturing workers. Scand J Work Environ Health. 1991;17: 46-52.
17. Palmer KT, Harris EC, Coggon D. Carpal tunnel syndrome and its relation to occupation: a systematic literature review. Occup Med (Lond). 2007; 57: 57-66.
18. Shiri R, Miranda H, Heliovaara M, Viikari-Juntura E. Physical work load factors and carpal tunnel syndrome: a population-based study. Occup Environ Med. 2009; 66: 368-373.
19. Lalumandier JA, McPhee SD. Prevalence and risk factors of hand problems and carpal tunnel syndrome among dental hygienists. J Dent Hyg. 2001; 75: 130-134.
20. Anton D, Rosecrance J, Merlino L, Cook T. Prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms and carpal tunnel syndrome among dental hygienists. Am J Ind Med. 2002; 42: 248-257.
21. Werner RA, Hamann C, Franzblau A, Rodgers PA. Prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome and upper extremity tendinitis among dental hygienists. J Dent Hyg. 2002; 76: 126-132.
22. Nordstrom DL, Vierkant RA, Layde PM, Smith MJ. Comparison of self-reported and expert-observed physical activities at work in a general population. Am J Ind Med. 1998; 34: 29-35.
23. Dale AM, Gardner BT, Zeringue A, Strickland J, Descatha A, Franzblau A, Evanoff BA. Self-reported physical work exposures and incident carpal tunnel syndrome. Am J Ind Med. 2014; 57: 1246-1254.
24. Morse TF, Michalak-Turcotte C, Atwood-Sanders M, Warren N, Peterson DR, Bruneau H, Cherniack M. A pilot study of hand and arm musculoskeletal disorders in dental hygiene students. J Dent Hyg. 2003; 77: 173-179.
25. Katz JN, Stirrat CR. A self-administered hand diagram for the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome. J Hand Surg Am. 1990; 15: 360-363.
26. Franzblau A, Werner RA, Albers JW, Grant CL, Olinski D, Johnston E. Workplace surveillance for carpal tunnel syndrome using hand diagrams. J Occup Rehabil. 1994; 4: 185-198.
27. Dale AM, Strickland J, Symanzik J, Franzblau A, Evanoff B. Reliability of hand diagrams for the epidemiologic case definition of carpal tunnel syndrome. J Occup Rehabil. 2008; 18: 233-248.
28. Atroshi I. Prevalence of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome in a General Population. JAMA. 1999; 282(2):153.
29. Silverstein B, Fan Z, Smith C, Bao S, Howard N, Spielholz P, Bonauto D, Viikari-Juntura E. Gender adjustment or stratification in discerning upper extremity musculoskeletal disorder risk? Scandinavian J Work, Enviro Health. 2009; 35(2): 113-126.
30. Homan M, Franzblau A, Werner R, Albers J, Armstrong T, Bromberg M. Agreement between symptom surveys, physical examination procedures and electrodiagnostic findings for the carpal tunnel syndrome. Scand J Work, Environ Health. 1999; 25(2): 115-124.
31. Alhusain F, Almohrij M, Althukeir F, Alshater A, Alghamdi B, Masuadi E, Basudan A. Prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome symptoms among dentists working in Riyadh. Ann Saudi Med. 2019; 39(2): 104-111.
32. Lam N, Thurston A. Association of obesity, gender, age and occupation with carpal tunnel syndrome. ANZ J Surg. 1998; 68(3): 190-193.
33. Boz C, Ozmenoglu M, Altunayoglu V, Velioglu S, Alioglu Z. Individual risk factors for carpal tunnel syndrome: an evaluation of body mass index, wrist index and hand anthropometric measurements. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2004; 106(4): 294-299.
34. Davies N, Holmes M, Davey Smith G. Reading Mendelian randomisation studies: a guide, glossary, and checklist for clinicians. BMJ. 2018; k601.
35. Werner R, Albers J, Franzblau A, Armstrong T. The relationship between body mass index and the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome. Muscle & Nerve. 1994; 17(6):632-636.36.
36. O'Gradaigh D, Merry P. A diagnostic algorithm for carpal tunnel syndrome based on Bayes's theorem. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2000; 39(9): 1040-1041.
37. Silverstein BA, Fine LJ, Armstrong TJ. Occupational factors and carpal tunnel syndrome. American J Indus Med. 1987; 11(3): 343-358.
Files
IssueVol 13 No 4 (2021) QRcode
SectionOriginal Article(s)
Published2021-12-30
Keywords
Prevalence Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Hand Diagram Occupational Dentistry

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
How to Cite
1.
Aljunaid N, Alzahrani A, Hegazy A, Altassan K. Demographic and Occupational Risk FactorDemographic and Occupational Risk Factors of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome among Dental students in ths of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome among Dental students in their Final Year at King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Int J Occup Hyg. 2021;13(4):300-312.