Original Article

Evaluation of Cognitive Characteristics among Nurses of Al-Zahra Hospital in Isfahan in Terms of Demographic Variables


Cognitive failures are one of the main reasons for nurses' inattention and reduced patient safety in hospitals. This study aimed to investigate the cognitive failure characteristics in nurses of Al-Zahra Hospital in Isfahan. For this purpose, a cognitive failure questionnaire was provided to nurses working in this treatment unit. After analyzing the data obtained from the questionnaires, the Mann-Whitney test and Kruskal-Wallis test were used. Based on the results of the Kruskal-Wallis test, there is no significant difference in the average of cognitive failure between different age groups (=4.77, p=0.18), different wards (=3.47, p=0.62), different employment statuses (=0.16, p=0.92) and different work experiences (=0.63, p=0.72). According to the results of the U Mann-Whitney test, statistically, between male and female nurses (Z=-0.77, Sig.=0.43), single and double occupational nurses (Z=-0.59, Sig.=0.55), nurses with different education (Z=-0.38, Sig.=0.702), different working hours (Z=-0.65, Sig.=0.51), being under psychiatric treatment and not being under psychiatric treatment (Z=-0.20, Sig.=0.83), the experience of mental illness in the last 6 months and the absence of such experience (Z=-0.53, Sig.=0.59), there is no significant difference between having a chronic disease and not having a chronic disease (Z=-0.93, Sig.=0.35) in terms of the average of cognitive failure. According to the results of this study, the studied parameters do not have a significant effect on the incidence of cognitive failures and therefore do not play a role in the occurrence of disorders in thinking, concentration and attention of nurses. Therefore, the cognitive failures that occurred in Al-Zahra Hospital are related to other parameters.

1. Broadbent, D.E., et al., The cognitive failures questionnaire (CFQ) and its correlates. British journal of clinical psychology, 1982. 21(1): p. 1-16.
2. Kranjčev, M. and T. Vukasović Hlupić, Personality, anxiety, and cognitive failures as predictors of flow proneness. Personality and Individual Differences, 2021. 179: p. 110888.
3. Kanai, R., et al., Distractibility in daily life is reflected in the structure and function of human parietal cortex. Journal of Neuroscience, 2011. 31(18): p. 6620-6626.
4. Wadsworth, E.J., et al., The Bristol Stress and Health Study: accidents, minor injuries and cognitive failures at work. Occup Med (Lond), 2003. 53(6): p. 392-7.
5. Wallace, J.C. and G. Chen, Development and validation of a work-specific measure of cognitive failure: Implications for occupational safety. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 2005. 78(4): p. 615-632.
6. Petitta, L., et al., Cognitive failures in response to emotional contagion: Their effects on workplace accidents. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 2019. 125: p. 165-173.
7. Johnson, R.C., et al., Home is where the mind is: Family interference with work and safety performance in two high risk industries. Journal of vocational behavior, 2019. 110: p. 117-130.
8. Lapierre, L.M., et al., Family interference with work and workplace cognitive failure: The mitigating role of recovery experiences. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 2012. 81(2): p. 227-235.
9. Elfering, A., S. Grebner, and A. Dudan, Job characteristics in nursing and cognitive failure at work. Safety and health at work, 2011. 2(2): p. 194-200.
10. Könen, T. and J. Karbach, Self-reported cognitive failures in everyday life: A closer look at their relation to personality and cognitive performance. Assessment, 2020. 27(5): p. 982-995.
11. Hsu, Y.-S., Y.-P. Chen, and M.A. Shaffer, Reducing work and home cognitive failures: the roles of workplace flextime use and perceived control. Journal of Business and Psychology, 2021. 36(1): p. 155-172.
12. Greenhaus, J.H. and T.D. Allen, Work–family balance: A review and extension of the literature, in Handbook of occupational health psychology, 2nd ed. 2011, American Psychological Association: Washington, DC, US. p. 165-183.
13. Cullen, J.C. and L.B. Hammer, Developing and testing a theoretical model linking work-family conflict to employee safety. Journal of occupational health psychology, 2007. 12(3): p. 266.
14. Oud, F.M.M., et al., Recognition of cognitive impairment and depressive symptoms in older patients with heart failure. Netherlands Heart Journal, 2021. 29(7): p. 377-382.
15. Elfering, A., S. Grebner, and C. Ebener, Workflow interruptions, cognitive failure and near-accidents in health care. Psychology, Health & Medicine, 2015. 20(2): p. 139-147.
16. Pereira, D., P. Müller, and A. Elfering, Workflow interruptions, social stressors from supervisor(s) and attention failure in surgery personnel. Ind Health, 2015. 53(5): p. 427-33.
17. Holbrook, M.I., M.H. White, and M.J. Hutt, Increasing awareness of sleep hygiene in rotating shift workers: arming law-enforcement officers against impaired performance. Percept Mot Skills, 1994. 79(1 Pt 2): p. 520-2.
18. Machado, D.A., et al., Cognitive changes in nurses working in intensive care units. Revista brasileira de enfermagem, 2018. 71: p. 73-79.
19. Mohammadi, M., et al., Designing questionnaire of assessing mental workload and determine its validity and reliability among ICUs nurses in one of the TUMS’s hospitals. Journal of School of Public Health and Institute of Public Health Research, 2013. 11(2): p. 87-96.
20. Broadbent, D.E., et al., Health of Workers Exposed to Electric Fields. British Journal of Industrial Medicine, 1985. 42(2): p. 75-84.
21. Allahyari, T., et al., Development and Evaluation of a New Questionnaire for Rating of Cognitive Failures at Work. International Journal of Occupational Hygiene, 2011. 3(1): p. 6-11.
22. Bridger, R.S., S. Johnsen, and K. Brasher, Psychometric properties of the Cognitive Failures Questionnaire. Ergonomics, 2013. 56(10): p. 1515-24.
23. Wallace, J.C. and S.J. Vodanovich, Workplace safety performance: Conscientiousness, cognitive failure, and their interaction. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 2003. 8(4): p. 316-327.
24. Park, Y.-M. and S.Y. Kim, Impacts of Job Stress and Cognitive Failure on Patient Safety Incidents among Hospital Nurses. Safety and Health at Work, 2013. 4(4): p. 210-215.
25. Allan, J.L., et al., Stress in telephone helpline nurses is associated with failures of concentration, attention and memory, and with more conservative referral decisions. British Journal of Psychology, 2014. 105(2): p. 200-213.
26. Farquharson, B., et al., Nursing stress and patient care: real-time investigation of the effect of nursing tasks and demands on psychological stress, physiological stress, and job performance: study protocol. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 2013. 69(10): p. 2327-2335.
27. Elfering, A., S. Grebner, and F. de Tribolet-Hardy, The long arm of time pressure at work: Cognitive failure and commuting near-accidents. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 2013. 22(6): p. 737-749.
28. Rast, P., et al., Factor Structure and Measurement Invariance of the Cognitive Failures Questionnaire Across the Adult Life Span. Assessment, 2009. 16(2): p. 145-158.
29. Heckhausen, J., R.A. Dixon, and P.B. Baltes, Gains and losses in development throughout adulthood as perceived by different adult age groups. Developmental psychology, 1989. 25(1): p. 109.
30. Bolla, K.I., et al., Memory complaints in older adults: Fact or fiction? Archives of neurology, 1991. 48(1): p. 61-64.
31. Derouesné, C., et al., Memory complaints in young and elderly subjects. International journal of geriatric psychiatry, 1999. 14(4): p. 291-301.
32. Hertzog, C., D.F. Hultsch, and R.A. Dixon, Evidence for the convergent validity of two self-report metamemory questionnaires. Developmental psychology, 1989. 25(5): p. 687.
33. Hertzog, C. and D.F. Hultsch, Metacognition in adulthood and old age, in The handbook of aging and cognition, 2nd ed. 2000, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers: Mahwah, NJ, US. p. 417-466.
34. Ponds, R.W.H.M., M.P.J. van Boxtel, and J. Jolles, Age-related changes in subjective cognitive functioning. Educational Gerontology, 2000. 26(1): p. 67-81.
35. Zimprich, D., M. Martin, and M. Kliegel, Subjective cognitive complaints, memory performance, and depressive affect in old age: a change-oriented approach. Int J Aging Hum Dev, 2003. 57(4): p. 339-66.
36. Hussain, S., et al., Emotional climate, work stress and occupational cognitive failure in doctors. Peshawar Journal of Psychology and Behavioral Sciences (PJPBS), 2018. 4(2): p. 221-235.
37. Arthur Jr, W., et al., The use of person-organization fit in employment decision making: an assessment of its criterion-related validity. Journal of applied psychology, 2006. 91(4): p. 786.
38. Jarahian Mohammady, M., et al., Impacts of occupational cognitive failure and subjective workload on patient safety incidents among intensive care units nurses. Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 2020. 24(2): p. 96.
39. Rezaei Farsani, M. and M. Farokhpour, Study of the Rate, Type and Factors Affecting Drug Errors from the Perspective of Nurses Working in Intensive Care and Emergency Unite of Educational Hospitals of Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences. Development Strategies in Medical Education, 2017. 4(2): p. 71-83.
40. Saki, K., J. Khezri_Azar, and I. Mohebbi, NURSING ERRORS AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH FATIGUE AMONG NURSES OF THE EMERGENCY WARD. Nursing and Midwifery Journal, 2016. 13(10): p. 835-842.
41. Anoosheh, M., et al., Causes and management of nursing practice errors: a questionnaire survey of hospital nurses in Iran. International nursing review, 2008. 55(3): p. 288-295.
42. Atefi, N., et al., Factors influencing job satisfaction among registered nurses: a questionnaire survey in Mashhad, Iran. Journal of nursing management, 2015. 23(4): p. 448-458.
43. Matthews, G., K. Coyle, and A. Craig, Multiple factors of cognitive failure and their relationships with stress vulnerability. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 1990. 12(1): p. 49-65.
44. Mahdinia, M., et al., An investigation of cognitive failures and its related factors in industry employees in Qom Province, Iran, in 2016. Journal of Occupational Health and Epidemiology, 2017. 6(3): p. 157-164.
IssueVol 14 No 1 (2022) QRcode
SectionOriginal Article(s)
Cognitive failure Demographic characteristics Patient safety level Nurses' vigilance Occupational safety

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
How to Cite
Ghasemi Vinche M, Jafari Nodooshan R, Anooshe VS, Nasr Esfahani M, Jambarsang S. Evaluation of Cognitive Characteristics among Nurses of Al-Zahra Hospital in Isfahan in Terms of Demographic Variables. Int J Occup Hyg. 2022;14(1):69-76.