Presenting a Risk Management Model for Mineral Hot Spas Based on the Qualitative Index: A Case Study in Ardabil City, Iran
Regarding significant number of the people affecting by factors, such as gas poisoning, microbial, and heat exhaustion in mineral hot spas, the present study was conducted aimed at providing a model for measuring and managing the risk of using hot mineral spas. In this research, a conceptual model of risk was prepared in four stages. Firstly, 16 qualitative parameters were extracted, their effect weight of which was obtained based on the amount of risk for users was determined by fuzzy analysis method. According to the amount and standard range allowed for each parameter, quantitative and qualitative risk categories were obtained in five ranges for each parameter based on the obtained weights and opinions of the health experts. Then, the final result regarding risk of using each spa was obtained by combining these parameters. For assessing risk of using hot mineral spas in Ardabil province by the method invented in this research, at first, water samples were collected from six spas in different parts of Ardabil province. Then, risk management of six spas was evaluated. According to the results, the Qotursuyi spa had a high level of risk, the spas of Shabil, Gavmishgoli, and Qinarjeh had a moderate level of risk. Under responsible risk management, natural hot springs present a renewable resource for sustainable tourism development on a long-term basis.
2. Ghalamghash J, Mousavi S, Hassanzadeh J, Schmitt A. Geology, zircon geochronology, and petrogenesis of Sabalan volcano (northwestern Iran). J Volcanology Geothermal Res. 2016;327:192-207.
3. Sobhani B. Identification of Warm Eaters of Ardabil Province and its Status in Development of Tourism Industry. Sci Res J "Geographical Data (SEPEHR)". 2000;9(35):38-44.
4. Lund JW. Balneological use of thermal waters. Geo-Heat Center Quarterly Bulletin. 2000;21(3).
5. INSO. Tourism and related services - medical spas - Service requirements, INSO: 22715. Iranian National Standardization Organization; 2019.
6. Margarucci LM, Spica VR, Gianfranceschi G, Valeriani F. Untouchability of natural spa waters: Perspectives for treatments within a personalized water safety plan. Env Intl. 2019;133:105095.
7. Hoseinpour R, Riyahi L. Relationship between medical therapy tourism and the rate of tourism attraction in Ardabil province. J Health. 2018;9(2):159-71.
8. Sadeghi H, BagheriArdebilian P, Rostami R, Poureshgh Y, Fazlzadeh M. Biological and physicochemical quality of thermal spring pools, with emphasis on Staphylococcus aureus: Sarein tourist town, Ardabil. J Env Health Eng. 2014;1(3):203-15.
9. INSO. Tourism and related services –Hydrotherapy center – Hot and cold spring - General requirements and specifications, INSO: 20483. Iranian National Standardization Organization 2017.
10. INSO. Tourism and related services –wellness spa – Service requirements, INSO: 15572. Iranian National Standardization Organization 2018.
11. INSO. Swimming pools - general requirements, INSO:11203. Iranian National Standardization Organization 1992.
12. Gholami PS, Nassiri P, Yarahmadi R, Hamidi A, Mirkazemi R. Assessment of health safety and environment management system function in contracting companies of one of the petro-chemistry industries in Iran, a case study. Saf Sci. 2015;77:42-7.
13. Sevillano D, Romero-Lastra PT, Casado I, Alou L, González N, Collado L, et al. Impact of the biotic and abiotic components of low mineralized natural mineral waters on the growth of pathogenic bacteria of human origin: a key to self-control of spa water quality. J Hydrology. 2018;566:227-34.
14. Serbulea M, Payyappallimana U. Onsen (hot springs) in Japan—Transforming terrain into healing landscapes. Health Place. 2012;18(6):1366-73.
15. Glavaš N, Mourelle ML, Gómez CP, Legido JL, Šmuc NR, Dolenec M, et al. The mineralogical, geochemical, and thermophysical characterization of healing saline mud for use in pelotherapy. Appl Clay Sci. 2017;135:119-28.
16. Mirhosseini SM, Moattar F, Negarestani A, Karbasi AR. Role of hot springs’ hydrochemistry in Balneotherapy, Case Study: Fotoyeh and sanguyeh springs, western Hormozgan. Hormozgan Med J. 2015;19(3):194-203.
17. Ncube S, Mlunguza NY, Dube S, Ramganesh S, Ogola HJO, Nindi MM, et al. Physicochemical characterization of the pelotherapeutic and balneotherapeutic clayey soils and natural spring water at Isinuka traditional healing spa in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Sci Total Env. 2020;717:137284.
18. Armstrong TW, Haas CN. Quantitative microbial risk assessment model for Legionnaires' disease: assessment of human exposures for selected spa outbreaks. J Occup Env Hyg. 2007;4(8):634-46.
19. Erfurt PJ. An assessment of the role of natural hot and mineral springs in health, wellness and recreational tourism [dissertation]. cairns, Australia: James Cook University; 2011.
20. Purdy G. ISO 31000: 2009—setting a new standard for risk management. Risk Analy An Intl J. 2010;30(6):881-6.
21. Hamzah Z, Rani N, Saat A, Wood AK. Determination of hot springs physico-chemical water quality potentially use for balneotherapy. Malaysian J Analy Sci. 2013;17(3):436-44.
22. Hang C, Zhang B, Gong T, Xian Q. Occurrence and health risk assessment of halogenated disinfection byproducts in indoor swimming pool water. Sci Total Env. 2016;543:425-31.
23. Newbold J. Management of spa pools: controlling the risk of infection. Health Protection Agency, London, United Kingdom. 2006.
24. Pantelić NĐ, Jaćimović S, Štrbački J, Milovanović DB, Dojčinović BP, Kostić AŽ. Assessment of spa mineral water quality from Vrnjačka Banja, Serbia: geochemical, bacteriological, and health risk aspects. Env Monitoring Assessment. 2019;191(11):648.
25. Ristić D, Vukoičić D, Nikolić M, Milinčić M, Kićović D. Capacities and energy potential of thermal-mineral springs in the area of the Kopaonik tourist region (Serbia). Renewable Sus Energy Rev. 2019;102:129-38.
26. Nowicki P, Simon A, Kafel P, Casadesus M. Recognition of customer satisfaction standards of ISO 10000 family by spa enterprises–a case study analysis. Techniques, methodologies and quality. 2014;92(5):91-105.
|Issue||Vol 14 No 1 (2022)|
|Balneotherapy Qualitative Index Risk Management Spa|
|Rights and permissions|
|This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.|