International Journal of Occupational Hygiene 2017. 9(3):118-131.

Occupational Exposure Assessment of Chromium (VI): A Review of Environmental and Biological Monitoring
MONIREH KHADEM, FARIDEH GOLBABAEI, ABDOLRASOUL RAHMANI

Abstract


Chromium (VI) compounds are used in various industries like metal coatings, protective paints, dyes and pigments for their properties especially anti-corrosive ones. Exposure to Cr (VI) may induce cancer, and cause irritation or damage to the respiratory tract, eyes, and skin. In addition, it may lead to mutagenic, genotoxic, and reproductive effects on humans. Workers are often exposed to airborne Cr (VI) via the inhalation of dust, fume or mist. There are various procedures for Cr (VI) exposure assessment as part of risk characterization and implementing a monitoring program. Analysis of chromium in environmental or biological samples must be considered. Air sampling and chromium analysis by different instruments and techniques, biological monitoring by different procedures to detect biomarkers, investigation of carcinogenicity and genotoxicity mechanism, medical examinations, and occupational exposure limits in workplace air and biological matrices are the important factors to be considered in the risk assessment strategy of Cr (VI). The purpose of this article was to review the literature and provide useful information about different methods for environmental and biological monitoring of chromium (VI) in order to assess quantitatively the risk of exposure to this compound.


Keywords


chromium (VI); Exposure Assessment; Sampling and Analysis; Biological Monitoring

Full Text:

PDF

References


Levankumar L, Muthukumaran V, Gobinath MB. Batch adsorption and kinetics of chromium (VI) removal from aqueous solutions by Ocimum americanum L. seed pods. J Hazard Mater 2009; 161(2-3): 709-13.

OSHA. A Guide to Hexavalent Chromium Cr (VI) for Industry. Occupational Safety and Health Division, N.C. Department of Labor. www.nclabor.com/osha/etta/indguide/. 2013

Tirgar A, Golbabaei F, Nourijelyani K, Farhang Kanzadeh A, Shahtaheri SJ, Ganjali MR, Hamedi J. Evaluation of parameters influencing hexavalent chromium mist sampling: a full factorial design. Iran J Chem Eng 2007; 26(4), 115-21.

Ashley K, Howe AM, Demang M, Nygren O. Sampling and analysis consideration for the determination of hexavalent chromium in workplace air. J Environ Monit 2003; 5: 707- 716.

Golbabaei F, Seyedsomea M, Ghahri A, Shirkhanloo H, Khadem M, Hassani H, Dinari B. Assessment of welders exposure to carcinogen metals from manual metal arc welding in gas transmission pipelines, Iran. Iran J Public Health 2012; 41(8): 61-70.

Cheun KH, Ji-Dong Gu H. Mechanism of hexavalent chromium detoxification by microorganisms and bioremediation application potential: A review. Int Biodeterior Biodegradation 2007; 59: 8–15.

Fukai R. Valency state of chromium in seawater. Nature (London) 1967; 213: 901.

Jan TK, Young DR. Chromium speciation in municipal wastewaters and seawater. J Water Pollut Control Fed 1978; 50: 2327–2336.

Khambhaty Y, Mody K, Basha S, Jha B. Kinetics, equilibrium and thermodynamic studies on biosorption of hexavalent chromium by dead fungal biomass of marine Aspergillus niger. Chem Eng 2009; 145(3): 89-95.

Golbabaei F, Heidari M, Tirgar A, Rahimi Foroushani A, Shahtaheri SJ. [Efficiency of Protective Mask Filters in Removal of Hexavalent Chromium Mist]. J Babol Univ Med Sci 2012; 14(5): 77-83. Persian.

Nriagu JO, Pacyna JM (1988) Quantitative assessment of worldwide contamination of air, water and soils by trace metals. Nature 1988; 333: 134 - 139

ACGIH. TLVs and BEIs. Cincinnati OH: American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. Publication No. 0111. 2011.

Workplace Health and Safety Queensland (WHSQ). Chromium health monitoring. Department of Justice and Attorney General. PN10450 Version 2. www.worksafe.qld.gov.au. 2012.

ACGIH. Guide to occupational exposure values. Cincinnati, OH: American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. Publication No. 0389.2011.

OSHA. OSHA safety and health topic, OSHA standards: hexavalent chromium. www.osha.gov/SLTC/hexavalentchromium. 2007.

NIOSH. Occupational Exposure to Hexavalent Chromium. Department Of Health And Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, DHHS(NIOSH), Publication No. 2013–128. www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2013- 128. 2013

Environmental Protection Agency. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) on Chromium VI. National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, Washington DC. 1999.

ATSDR. Draft toxicological profile for chromium. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry.http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles. 2008.

NIOSH. Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Cincinnati, OH. 1997.

OSHA. Occupational Safety and Health Standards, Toxic and Hazardous Substances. Code of Federal Regulations, standard 29 CFR. Standard No. 1910.1000. https://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document.1998.

ACGIH. TLVs and BEIs. Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents, Biological Exposure Indices. Cincinnati, OH. 1999.

Barrera-Diaz, CE, Lugo-Lugo V, Bilyeu B. A review of chemical, electrochemical and biological methods for aqueous Cr (VI) reduction. J Hazard Mater 2012; 223: 1-12.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexavalent Chromium (External Review Draft). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington DC. 2010.

Committee on Health and the Environment (CDW). Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality. Summary Table on Drinking Water of the Federal-Provincial-Territorial Committee, Canada. 2010.

Beker C, Borak J. “Case study-11: chromium toxicity” In Environmental medicine, Institute of Medicine, Division of Health Promotion and Disease Prevention, Washington, D.C: National Academy Press. 1990.

Chen J. Use of inhalable Cr+6exposure to characterize urinary chromium concentrations in plating industry workers. J Occup Health 2002; 44: 46-52.

Chiu-shong L, Hsien W, Kuo S, Lai J, Tsai-In L. Urinary Nacetyl-B-D-glucosaminidase as an indicator of renal dysfunction in Electroplating works. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 1998; 71: 348-352.

Wang X, Qin Q, Xu X, Xu J, Wang J, Zhou J, Chen J. Chromium-induced early changes in renal function among ferrochromium-producing workers. Toxicology 1994; 90: 93-101.

Soraham T, Harrington JM. Lung cancer in Yorkshire chrome platers 1972-97. Occup Environ Med 2000; 57: 385.

Kiilunen M. Occupational Exposure to chromium and Nickel in Finland-analysis of registries of hygienic measurements and biological monitoring. Ann Occup Hyg 1994; 138(2): 171.

Bennett JS, Marlow DA, Nourian F, Breay J, Hammond D. Hexavalent Chromium and Isocyanate Exposures during Military Aircraft Painting under Crossflow Ventilation. J Occup Environ Hyg 2016; 13(5): 356–371

EPA. Elementis Chromium, Office of Administrative Law Judges, Docket No. TSCA-HQ-2010-5022, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington DC. 2013.

ATSDR. Chromium. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Public Health and Human Services, Division of Toxicology and Human Health Sciences ToxFAQ. 2012.

Gibb HJ, Lees PS, Pinsky PF, Rooney BC. Clinical findings of irritation among chromium chemical production workers. Am J Ind Med 2000; 38: 127-131.

Tirgar A, Golbabei F, Nourijelyani K, Shahtaheri SJ, Ganjali MR, Hamedi J. Design and performance of chromium mist generator. J Braz Chem Soc 2006; 17(2): 342-347.

Hansen MB, Johansen JD, Menne T. Chromium allergy: significance of both Cr (III) and Cr (VI). Contact Dermatitis 2003; 49: 206-212.

Huang YL, Chen CY, Sheu JY. Lipid peroxidation in workers exposed to hexavalent chromium. ‎J Toxicol Environ Health A. 1999; 56(4): 235-247.

Pope AM, Rall DP, Editors. Institute of Medicine. Environmental Medicine: Integrating a Missing Element into Medical Education. Washington DC: The National Academies Press. 1995.

30. Fishbein L. Sources, transport and alterations of metal compounds: an overview. I. Arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, and nickel. Environ Health Perspect 1981; 40: 43–64.

Bright P, Burge PS, O’Hickey SP, Gannon PFG. Occupational asthma due to chrome and nickel electroplating. Thorax 1997; 52(1): 28.

Schneider BC, Constant SL, Patierno SR, Jurjus RA, Ceryak SM. Exposure to particulate hexavalent chromium exacerbates allergic asthma pathology. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2012; 259: 38-44.

Hjollund NH, Bonde JP, Ernst E, Lindenberg S, Andersen AN, Olsen J. Spontaneous Abortion in IVF Couples-a Role of Male Welding Exposure. Hum Reprod 2005; 20 (7): 1793-7.

Costa M, Klein BC. Toxicity and Carcinogenicity of Chromium Compounds in Humans. Crit Rev Toxicol 2006; 36(2): 155-163.

O'Brien TJ, Ceryak S, Patierno SR. Complexities of chromium carcinogenesis: role of cellular response, repair and recovery mechanisms. Mutat Res 2003; 533: 3–36.

Wise SS, Holmes AL, Wise Sr JP. Hexavalent chromium-induced DNA damage and repair mechanisms. Rev Environ Health 2008; 23(1): 39–57.

IARC. Agents reviewed by the IARC monographs, volumes 1–99, Lyon. http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/ Classification/index.php. 2012.

US Department of Health and Human Services (U.S. HHS), National Toxicology Program (NTP). Report on carcinogens. 12th ed. Public Health Service. http:// ntp.niehs.nih.gov/ntp/roc/. 2011.

Nickens KP, Patierno SR, Ceryak S. Chromium genotoxicity: a double edged sword. Chem Biol Interact 2010; 188: 276–288.

Saxena DK, Murthy RC, Jain VK, Chandra SV. Fetoplacental-maternal uptake of hexavalent chromium administered orally in rats and mice. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 1990; 45: 430–435.

Manning FC, Blankenship LJ, Wise JR, Xu J, Bridgewater LC, Patierno SR. Induction of internucleosomal DNA fragmentation by carcinogenic chromate: Relationship to DNA damage, genotoxicity, and inhibition of macromolecular synthesis. Environ Health Perspect 1994; 102: 159–67.

Xie H, Holmes AL, Wise SS, Gordon N, Wise JP. Lead chromate-induced chromosome damage requires extracellular dissolution to liberate chromium ions but does not require particle internalization or intracellular dissolution. Chem Res Toxicol 2004; 17: 1362–7.

EPA. Evidence on the Developmental and Reproductive Toxicity of Chromium (Hexavalent Compounds), Reproductive and Cancer Hazard Assessment Section, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment California Environmental Protection Agency. 2009.

NIOSH. Hexavalent chromium by ion chromatography: Method 7605. In: NIOSH manual of analytical methods. 4th ed. Cincinnati, OH: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 94–113. 2003.

OSHA. Hexavalent chromium: Method ID-215 (Version 2). In: OSHA Analytical Methods Manual. Salt Lake City, UT: U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration. 2006.

ASTM. Standard test method for the determination of hexavalent chromium in workplace air by ion chromatography and spectrophotometric measurement using 1,5-diphenylcarbazide. West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International, Publication No. ASTM D6832-02. 2002.

Golbabaei F, Hashemi R, Tirgar A, Hoseini M, Shahtaheri S.J. [Effective Factors on Determination of Hexavalent Chromium in Air]. Journal of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences. 2008; 12(1): 71-83. Persian.

Shin YC, Paike NW. Reduction of Hexavalent Chromium collected to PVC filters. J Am Ind Hyg 2000; 61(7): 563-7.

Abell M, Carlberg JR. Simple reliable method for the determination of airborne hexavalent chromium. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 1974; 35(4): 229-33.

Golbabaei F, Zare Sakhvidi MJ, Tirgar A, Shahtaheri SJ, Rahimi Foroshani A. Assessment of Hexavalent Chromium Emission in Various Stainless Steel Welding Processes. Iran Occupational Health 2007. 4(1), 20-24. Persian.

Kuo HW, Lee HM, Lai JS. Evaluation of analytical method for airborne Hexavalent Chromium. Institute of Environmental Health China Medical College. Occupational Safety and Health Studies Quarterly 1998; VI, 69-78.

Kacar Y, Arpa C, Tan S, Denizli A, Genc O, Arica MY. Biosorption of Hg(II) and Cd(II) from aqueous solutions: Comparison of biosorptive capacity of alginate and immobilized live and heat inactivated Phanerochaete Chrysospoium. Process Biochem 2002; 37: 601-610.

Tirgar A, Golbabaei F, Hamedi J, Nourijelyani K. Removal of airborne hexavalent chromium using alginate as a biosorbent. Int J Environ Sci Tech 2011; 8(2): 237-244.

Araujo MM, Teixeira JA. Trivalent chromium sorption on alginate beads. Int Biodeterior Biodegrad 1997; 40(1): 63-74.

HSE. Methods for determination of hazardous substances (MDHS) 52/3 Chromium in Chromium plating mists. Shefield: HSE:1-16. 1998.

OSHA. Hexavalent Chromium in workplace atmosphere, Method No: ID-215:1-35. 1998.

NIOSH. NIOSH manual of analytical methods: Chromium Hexavalent. Method No: 7600: 1-4. 1994

Huang C, Willeke K, Qian Y, Grinshpun S, Ulevicius V. Method for measuring the spatial variability of aerosol penetration through respirator filter. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 1998; 59(7): 461-5.

Chen CC, Rusksnen J, Pilacinski W. Filter and leak penetration characteristics of a dust and mist filtering face piece. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 1990; 51(12): 632-9.

Ackley MW. Degradation of electrostatic filters at elevated temperature and humidity. Filtration Separation 1985; 22(4): 239-42.

Motyl E, Lowkis B. Effect of air humidity on charge decay and lifetime of PP electret nonwovens Fibres. Text East Eur 2006; 14(5): 39-42.

Makowski K. Deposition and resuspension of selected aerosols particles on electrically charged filter materials for respiratory protective devices. Int J Occup Saf Ergon 2005; 11(4), 363-76.

Kenny LC, Aitken R, Chalmers CA. Collaborative European study of personal inhalable aerosol sampler performance. Ann Occup Hyg 1997; 4(2): 135-153.

Dennis JH, French MJ, Hewitt PJ, Mortazavi SB, Redding CA. Control of Exposure to Hexavalent Chromium and Ozone in Gas Metal Arc Welding of Stainless Steels by Use of a Secondary Shield Gas. Ann Occup Hyg J 2002; 46(1): 43-8.

Karlsen JT, Farrants G, Torgrimsen T, Reith A. Chemical Composition and Morphology of Welding Fume Particles and Grinding Dusts. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 1992; 53(5): 290-297.

Sreekanthan PT, Eagar W, Jenkins NT, Krishna GG, Antonini JM, Brain JD. Study of Chromium in Gas Metal Arc Welding Fume, in Proceedings of Trends in Welding Conference, ASM, Materials Park, OH. 1998.

European chemical agency (ECHA). Chromium trioxide, Exposure Assessment (and related risk characterisation), Chemical Safety Report 1. EC number: 215-607-8. 2015

Mehra HC, Frankenberger J. Single-column ion-chromatographic determination of chromium(VI) in aqueous soil and sludge extracts. Talanta 1989; 36(9): 889.

Lorentzen EML, Kingston HMC. Comparison of Microwave-Assisted and Conventional Leaching Using EPA Method 3050B. Anal Chem 1996; 68(24): 4316–4320.

Lameiras J, Soares ME, Bastos ML, Ferreira M. Quantification of total chromium and hexavalent chromium in UHT milk by ETAAS. Analyst 1998; 123: 2091-2095.

Jarvis I, Totland MM, Jarvis KE. Assessment of Dowex 1-X8-based Anion-exchange Procedures for the Separation and Determination of Ruthenium, Rhodium, Palladium, Iridium, Platinum and Gold in Geological Samples by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry. Analyst 1997; 122: 19-26.

Krushevska A, Waheed A, Nobrega J, Amarisiriwardena D, Barnes RM. Reducing polyatomic interferences in the ICP-MS determination of chromium and vanadium in biofluids and tissues. Appl Spectroscopy 1998; 52(2): 205-211.

Maria G. Angelova, Atanaska N. Bozhinova. Short Review on Spectral Methods for the Determination of Chromiun in Human Body Fluids and Tissues. Open Sci J Anal Chem 2 (3), 2015: 13-19.

Piippanen T, Jaatinen J, Tummavuori T. The analysis of chromium, cobalt, iron, nickel, niobium, tantalum, titanium and zinc in cemented tungsten carbides with cobalt as a binder by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. Fresenius J Anal Chem 1997; 357(4): 405-410.

Boumans PWJM. Line Coincidence Tables for Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry. 2nd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 1984.

Roychowdhury SB, Koropchak JA. Thermospray enhanced inductively coupled plasma atomic emission-spectroscopy detection for liquid. Analytica Chimica Acta 1990; 62(5): 484-489.

Arber JM, Urch DS, West NG. Determination of chromium oxidation state by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry: application to chromium (VI) and chromium(III) determination in occupational hygiene samples. Analyst 1988; 113; 779-782.

Wang J, Ashley K, Kennedy ER, Neumeister C. Determination of Hexavalent Chromium in Industrial Hygiene Samples Using Ultrasonic Extraction and Flow Injection Analysis. Analyst 1997; 122: 1307–1312.

Mena ML, Morales Rubio A, Cox AG, McLeod CW, Quevauviller P. Stability of chromium species immobilized on microcolumns of activated alumina. Quimica Analitica Bellaterra 1995; 14: 164-168.

Manzoori J.L, Shemirani F. Determination of chromium (VI) and total chromium by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry after preconcentration using solvent extraction and back-extraction. J Anal At Spectrom 1995; 10(10): 881-883.

Eller PM, Cassinelli ME (4th Ed.). NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods,(NIOSH), Cincinnati, OH. 1994.

Pozdniakova S. Padarauskas, A. Speciation of metals in different oxidation states by capillary electrophoresis using pre-capillary complexation with complexones. Analyst 1998; 123: 1497-1500.

Oliveira PCC, Masin JC. Sequential injection determination of chromium (VI) by transient oxidation of brucine with spectrophotometric detection and in-line dilution. Analyst 1998; 123: 2085-2090.

Alvarez MJG, Garcia MED, Sanz Medel A. The complexation of Cr (III) and Cr(VI) with flavones in micellar media and its use for the spectrophotometric determination of chromium. Talanta 1989; 36(9): 919–923.

Haukka S. Determination of chromium in catalysts by ultraviolet/visible spectrophotometry. Analyst 1991; 116: 1055-1057.

Carrington NA, Thomas GH, Rodman DL, Beach DB, Xue ZL. Optical determination of Cr(VI) using regenerable, functionalized sol–gel monoliths. Analytica Chimica Acta 2007; 581(2): 232-240.

Unceta N, Seby F, Malherbe J, Donard OF. Chromium speciation in solid matrices and regulation: a review. Anal Bioanal Chem 2010; 397(3): 1097-1111.

Andrle CM, Jakubowski N, Broekaert JAC. Speciation of chromium using reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to different spectrometric detection methods. Spectrochim Acta B: Atomic Spectroscopy 1997; 52(2): 189-200.

Posta J, Gaspar A, Toth R, Ombodi L. Cr (III) and Cr(VI) on-line preconcentration and determination with high performance flow flame emission spectrometry in natural samples. Fresenius J Anal Chem 1996; 355(5-6): 719-720.

Groll H, Schaldach G, Berndt H, Niemax K. Measurement of Cr (III)/Cr(VI) species by wavelength modulation diode laser flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Spectrochim Acta B: Atomic Spectroscopy 1995; 50(10): 1293-1298.

Magdalena S, Beata J, Wasowicz W. Application of high performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC–ICP-MS) for determination of chromium compounds in the air at the workplace. Talanta 2013; 117: 14-19.

Huo D, Lu Y, Chalk S. Accuracy in species analysis: speciated isotope dilution mass spectrometry (SIDMS) exemplified by the evaluation of chromium species. Spectrochim Acta B: Atomic Spectroscopy 1998; 53(2): 299-309.

Lori BA Koropchak AJ. Comparison of the effects of extra-column aerosol and liquid-phase volumes on high-performance liquid chromatographic separations with inductively coupled plasma detection. J Chromatogr A 1993; 657(1): 192-198.

Wang J, Lu J, Olsen K. Measurement of ultratrace levels of chromium by adsorptive–catalytic stripping voltammetry in the presence of cupferron. Analyst 1992; 117: 1913-1917.

Elleouet C, Quentel F, Madec C. Determination of trace amounts of chromium (VI) in water by electrochemical methods. Analytica Chimica Acta 1992; 257(2): 301-308.

Turyan I, Mandler D. Selective Determination of Cr (VI) by a Self-Assembled Monolayer-Based Electrode. Anal Chem 1997; 69(5): 894–897.

Chiarizia R, Horwitz EP, Hodgson KM. Nondispersive extraction of Cr (VI) with Aliquat 336: influence of carrier concentration. Sep Sci Technol 1996; 31(2): 271-82.

Chiarizia R, Horwitz EP, Hodgson KM. Removal of inorganic contaminants from groundwater. Use of Supported Liquid Membranes. In: Vandegrift GF, Reed DT, Tasker IR (Eds). Environmental Remediation ACS Symposium Series 509. Italy: Rome; 2009. P. 22–33.

Djane NK, Ndungu K, Johansson C, Sartz H, Tornstrom T, Mathiasson L. Chromium speciation in natural waters using serially connected supported liquid membranes. Talanta 1999; 48(5): 1121–1132.

Karwas JCP. Ammonia complexation in the analysis of hexavalent chromium in fly ash. Environ Sci Health A 1995; 30(6): 1223-1235.

Powell MJ, Boomer DW, Wiederin DR. Determination of Chromium Species in Environmental Samples Using High Pressure Liquid Chromatography Direct Injection Nebulization and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry. Anal Chem 1995; 67(14): 2474–2478.

Vercoutere K, Cornelis R, Dyg S, Mees L, Molin J, Byrialsen K, et al. Cr(III) and Cr(VI) speciation measurements in environmental reference materials. Microchimica Acta 1996; 123(1-4): 109-117.

ASTM. Standard Test Method for Collection and Analysis of Hexavalent Chromium (ASTM D 5281-92), In Annual Book of ASTM Standards,(vol. 11.01), Philadelphia, PA. 1992.

EPA. Method 218.6, Determination of Dissolved Hexavalent Chromium in Drinking Water, Groundwater and Industrial Waste Water Effects by Ion Chromatography, EPA Office of Research and Development, Cincinnati, OH. 1990.

EPA. Method 3060A, Alkaline Digestion for Hexavalent Chromium, In Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste, EPA, Washington, DC. 1995.

Marques MJ, Salvador A, Morales-Rubio A, de la Guardia. M. Chromium speciation in liquid matrices: a survey of the literature. Fresenius J Chem 2000; 367(7): 601-613.

National Research Council. Biologic Markers in Reproductive Toxicology. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. 1989.

Kakkar P, Farhat NJ. Biological markers for metal toxicity. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 2005; 19(2): 335-349.

Schulte PA. Opportunities for the development and use of biomarkers. Toxicol let 1995; 77(1): 25-29.

Miksche LW, Lewalter J. Health surveillance and biological effect monitoring for chromium exposed workers. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 1997; 26(1): S94-S99.

Barceloux DG, Barceloux D. Cobalt. Clin Toxicol 1999; 37(2): 201-216.

Caglieri A, Goldoni M, Acampa O, Andreoli R, Vettori MV, Corradi M, et al. The effect of inhaled chromium on different exhaled breath condensate biomarkers among chrome-plating workers. Environ Health Perspect 2006; 114(4), 542.

Trumbo P, Yates AA, Schlicker S, Poos M. Dietary reference intakes: vitamin A, vitamin K, arsenic, boron, chromium, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, silicon, vanadium, and zinc. J Am Diet Assoc 2001; 101(3), 294-301.

Sunderman FW, Hopfer SM, Swift T, Rezuke WN, Ziebka L, Highman P, et al. Cobalt, chromium, and nickel concentrations in body fluids of patients with porous‐coated knee or hip prostheses. J Orthop Res 1989; 7(3): 307-315.

Iyengar V, Woittiez J. Trace elements in human clinical specimens: evaluation of literature data to identify reference values. Clin Chem 1986; 34(3): 474-481.

Takagi Y, Matsuda S, Imai S, Ohmori Y, Masuda T, Vinson JA, et al. Trace elements in human hair: An international comparison. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 1986; 36: 793-800.

Lindberg E, Vesterberg O. Monitoring exposure to chromic acid in chrome plating by measuring chromium in urine. Scand J Work Environ Health 1983; 9(4): 333-340.

Scheepers PTJ, Heussen GAH, Peer PGM, Verbist K, Anzion R, Willems J. Characterization of exposure to total and hexavalent chromium of welders using biological monitoring. Toxicol let 2008; 178(3): 185-190.

Kortenkamp A. Problems in the biological monitoring of chromium (VI) exposed individuals. Biomarkers 1997; 2(2): 73-79.

Bonde JP, Christensen JM. Chromium in biological samples from low-level exposed stainless steel and mild steel welders. Arch Environ Occup Health 1991; 46(4): 225-229.

Hartwig A, Heederik D, Kromhout H, Levy L, Papameletiou D, Klein CL. 386 Chromium VI compounds, Recommendation from the Scientific Committee on Occupational Exposure Limits. European Commission Brussels, 2017.

Angerer J, Amin W, Heinrich-Ramm R, Szadkowski D, Lehnert G. Occupational chronic exposure to metals. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 1987; 59: 503-512.

Minoia C, Cavalleri A. Chromium in urine, serum and red blood cells in the biological monitoring of workers exposed to different chromium valency states. Sci Total Environ 1988; 71: 323-327.

Langard M. Evaluation of chromium exposure based on a simplified method for urinary chromium determination. Scand J Work Environ Health 1977; 3 (1): 28-31.

Muttamara S, Leong ST. Health implication among occupational exposed workers in a chromium alloy factory, Thailand. J Environ Sci 2004; 16: 181-186.

Gray SJ, Sterling K. The tagging of red cells and plasma proteins with radioactive chromium. J Clin Invest 1950; 29: 1604.

Wiegand HJ, Ottenwälder H, Bolt HM. Recent advances in biological monitoring of hexavalent chromium compounds. Sci Total Environ 1988; 71: 309-315.

Devoy J, Gehin A, Müller S, Melczer M, Remy A, Antoine G, Sponne I. Evaluation of chromium in red blood cells as an indicator of exposure to hexavalent chromium: An in vitro study. Toxicol Lett 2016; 255:63-70.

Corbett GE, Dodge DG, O'Flaherty E, Liang J, Throop L, Finley BL, et al. In Vitro Reduction Kinetics of Hexavalent Chromium in Human Blood. Environ Res 1998; 78: 7-11.

Lieberman H. Chrome ulcerations of the nose and throat. N Engl J Med 1941; 225: 132-133.

Kleinfeld M, Rosso A. Ulcerations of the nasal septum due to inhalation of chromic acid mist. J Occup Environ Med 1965; 7: 543.

Meyers JB. Acute Pulmonary Complications following Inhalation of Chromic Acid Mist. Preliminary Observations of Two Patients who inhaled Massive Amounts of Chromic Acid. Arch Indust Hyg Occup Med 1950; 2: 742-7.

Pascale LR, Waldstein SS, Engbring G, Dubin A, Szanto PB. Chromium intoxication: With special reference to hepatic injury. J Am Med Assoc 1952; 149: 1385-1389.

Baresic M, Gornik I, Radonic R, Zlopasa O, Gubarev N, Gasparovic V. Survival after severe acute chromic acid poisoning complicated with renal and liver failure. Inter Med 2009; 48: 711-715.

Lucas JB, Kramkowski RS. Health hazard evaluation determination. Cincinnati, OH: (former) US Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. Center for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. 1975.

Dalager NA, Mason TJ, Fraumeni Jr JF, Hoover R, Payne WW. Cancer mortality among workers exposed to zinc chromate paints. J Occup Environ Med 1980; 22 (1): 25-29.

Moller DR, Brooks SM, Bernstein DI, Cassedy K, Enrione M, Bernstein IL. Delayed anaphylactoid reaction in a worker exposed to chromium. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1986; 77 (3): 451-456.

Fernandez-Nieto M, Quirce S, Carnes J, Sastre J. Occupational asthma due to chromium and nickel salts. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 2006; 79 (6): 483-486.

Kalahasthi RB, Raghavendra Rao RH, Krishna Murthy RB, Karuna Kumar M. Effect of chromium(VI) exposure on serum amylase activity in chromium plating workers. Environl Sci 2007; 2(1): 2-6.

Kaaber K, and Veien NK. The significance of chromate ingestion in patients allergic to chromate. Acta Dermato-Venereologica 1997; 57: 321.

Goitre M, Bedeleo PG, Cane D. Chromium dermatitis and oral administration of the metal. Contact Dermatitis 1982; 8: 208-209.

Wang TC, Jia G, Zhang J, Ma YH, Liu LZ, Zhang N, Du XM. Vitamin B12 and folate deficiency and elevated plasma total homocysteine in workers with chronic exposure to chromate. ‎Occup Environ Med 2011; 68 (12): 870-875.

Kitamura F, Yokoyama K, Araki S, Nishikitani M, Choi JW, Yum YT, Sato H. Increase of olfactory threshold in plating factory workers exposed to chromium in Korea. Industrial Health 2003; 41 (3): 279-285.

Kumar S, Sathwara NG, Gautam AK, Agarwal K, Shah B, Kulkarni PK, et al. Semen quality of industrial workers occupationally exposed to chromium. J Occup Health 2005; 47 (5): 424-430.

Hjollund NH, Bonde JP, Hansen KS. Male-mediated risk of spontaneous abortion with reference to stainless steel welding. ‎Scand J Work Environ health 1995; 21: 272-276.

Glaser U, Hochrainer D, Steinhoff D. Investigation of irritating properties of inhaled Cr (VI) with possible influence on its carcinogenic action. In: Environmental Hygiene II, Springer Berlin Heidelberg: 1990: 239-245.

Liu CH, Kuo HW, Lai JS, Lin TI. Urinary N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase as an indicator of renal dysfunction in electroplating workers. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 1998; 71: 348-352.

Mutti A, Valcavi P, Fornari M, Lucertini S, Neri T, Alinovi R, Franchini I. Urinary excretion of brush-border antigen revealed by monoclonal antibody: early indicator of toxic nephropathy. The Lancet 1985; 326: 914-917.

Wang X, Qin Q, XU X, XU J, Wang J, Zhou J, Huang S, Zhai W, Zhou E. Chromium-induced early changes in renal function among ferrochromium producing workers. Toxicology 1994; 90 (1-2): 93-101.

Tomokoni K. Ichiba M, Hirai Y. Urinary N-acetyl-BD-glucosaminidase and Baminoisobutyric acid in workers occupationally exposed to metal such as chromium, nickel, and iron. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 1993; 65: 19-21.

Golbabaei F, Ostadi M, Mohammad K, Ostadi V, Rismanchian M, Tirgar A, Shahtaheri SJ. Feasibility of biological monitoring for evaluating of exposure to Cr (VI) in electroplating workshops. Journal of School of Public Health and Institute of Public Health. 2007; 5(3), 15-22. Persian.

Mutti A, Cavatorta A, Borghi A, Pedroni C, Franchini I, Borghetti A. Relation between environmental concentration, urinary elimination and body burden of chromium in occupationally exposed workers. Annali dellIstituto superiore di sanita 1987; 14 (3): 619-24.

Hsien L, Kuo W, Jim. SL, Lin TI. Urinary N-acetyl-B-Dglucosaminidase as an indicator of renal dysfunction in Electroplating works. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 1998; 71 (5): 348-352.

Vyskocil A, Smejkalova J, Tejral J, Emminger S, Vincentova M, Ettlerova E, Bernard A. Lack of renal changes in stainless steel welders exposed to chromium and nickel. ‎Scand J Work Environ Health 1992; 18 (4): 252-256.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License which allows users to read, copy, distribute and make derivative works for non-commercial purposes from the material, as long as the author of the original work is cited properly.