International Journal of Occupational Hygiene 2017. 9(3):.

Occupational Exposure Assessment of Chromium (VI): A Review of Environmental and Biological Monitoring
Monire Khadem, Farideh Golbabaei, Abdolrasoul Rahmani


Chromium (VI) compounds are used in various industries like metal coatings, protective paints, dyes and pigments for their properties especially anti-corrosive ones. Exposure to Cr (VI) may induce cancer, and cause irritation or damage to the respiratory tract, eyes and skin. Also, it may lead to mutagenic, genotoxic, and reproductive effects on humans. Workers are often exposed to airborne Cr (VI) via the inhalation of dust, fume or mist. There are various procedures for Cr (VI) exposure assessment as part of risk characterization and implementing a monitoring program. Analysis of chromium in environmental or biological samples must be considered. Air sampling and chromium analysis by different instruments and techniques, biological monitoring by different procedures to detect biomarkers, investigation of carcinogenicity and genotoxicity mechanism, medical examinations, and occupational exposure limits in workplace air and biological matrices are the important factors to be considered in the risk assessment strategy of Cr (VI). The purpose of this article is to review the literatures and provide useful information about quantitative risk assessment in humans occupationally exposed to chromium (VI).


chromium (VI); Exposure Assessment; Sampling and Analysis; Biological Monitoring

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