Review Article

Occupational Exposure Assessment of Chromium (VI): A Review of Environmental and Biological Monitoring


Chromium (VI) compounds are used in various industries like metal coatings, protective paints, dyes and pigments for their properties especially anti-corrosive ones. Exposure to Cr (VI) may induce cancer, and cause irritation or damage to the respiratory tract, eyes, and skin. In addition, it may lead to mutagenic, genotoxic, and reproductive effects on humans. Workers are often exposed to airborne Cr (VI) via the inhalation of dust, fume or mist. There are various procedures for Cr (VI) exposure assessment as part of risk characterization and implementing a monitoring program. Analysis of chromium in environmental or biological samples must be considered. Air sampling and chromium analysis by different instruments and techniques, biological monitoring by different procedures to detect biomarkers, investigation of carcinogenicity and genotoxicity mechanism, medical examinations, and occupational exposure limits in workplace air and biological matrices are the important factors to be considered in the risk assessment strategy of Cr (VI). The purpose of this article was to review the literature and provide useful information about different methods for environmental and biological monitoring of chromium (VI) in order to assess quantitatively the risk of exposure to this compound.

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IssueVol 9 No 3 (2017) QRcode
SectionReview Article(s)
chromium (VI) Exposure Assessment Sampling and Analysis Biological Monitoring

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How to Cite
KHADEM M, GOLBABAEI F, RAHMANI A. Occupational Exposure Assessment of Chromium (VI): A Review of Environmental and Biological Monitoring. Int J Occup Hyg. 2017;9(3):118-131.