Vol 8 No 1 (2016)
Introduction: Wind-turbine noise emission and its environmental impact are considerable issues nowadays. Considering the importance of the issue, the purpose of this study was to prepare noise map and wind turbines sound characteristics on the largest wind farm of Iran.
Method: This study was carried out in two phases:1) In order to prepare the daytime sound level (Ld) noise map, environmental noise measurement was done using LAeq for 10 minutes three times daily according to the ISO9612 method. 2) On the basis of IEC 61400-11.2006, sound characteristics and wind speed were measured concurrently at the back and front of the wind turbines using TES-1358 Sound Level Meter and vane anemometer.
Discussion: The average daytime sound level (Ld) of wind farm was 63dBA which is 3 dB higher than the recommended level. Wind speed has a significant non-linear relationship with the wind turbine noise emissions (p<0.05) which is valid with increasing wind speed up to 17 m/s. Frequency analysis showed that the wind turbine noise is in the range of low noise frequencies(below 1000 Hz). There is a significant relationship between the power generation, wind turbine blade length and sound level (p<0.05). Sound pressure levels in frequencies lower than 250 Hz are equal at the back and front of the wind turbines. Wind turbine characteristics specifies model of noise emission.
Result: Daytime sound level around the wind farm is more than the recommended values. The sound level of wind turbines is sensitive to Wind speed changes and it is in a range of low frequencies and fluctuation once.
Comparing the Association between Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) and Heat Stress Score Index (HSSI) Thermal Indices with Physiological Parameters in a Melting Plant
Introduction: Exposure to heat is one of the workplace risk factors, which may lead to thermal strain, such as rising heart rate and body temperature. To have the best association between a heat stress indices and physiological parameters have always been a major concern for those studying the subject. This study aims to compare the association of two heat stress indices with physiological parameters.
Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 54 acclimatized mail subjects working in a steel complex in May 2014. After enrolling individuals based on inclusion criteria, HSSI and WBGT heat indices and physiological parameters were recorded at three times (10 am, 12 pm and 3pm) during their work shift. Then the relationship between physiological parameters and the calculated indices were determined.
Discussion: The study population had a mean age of 29.3±4.2 years. The average value of the WBGT index was 27.3 ± 2.9°C and HSSI index was 22.7±3.6. The average relative humidity and air velocity was 35.9 ±1.9% and 1.5±0.4 m/s respectively. The correlation between WBGT and tympanic temperature was statistically significant (P≤0.01). However the HSSI was not significantly correlated to tympanic temperature (p=0.37). Correlation coefficient between WBGT and HSSI with heart rate was 0.458 and 0.191 respectively.
Result: WBGT is likely to offer a better assessment of thermal stress in comparison to HSSI in melting industry workers.
Knowledge, Attitude, and Performance of Oncology Nurses Handling Antineoplastic Drugs in Hospitals of Urmia University, Iran
Introduction: Antineoplastic drugs (ANDs) for the treatment of cancers could result in occupational exposure of nurses and consequent side effects. This study aimed to evaluate knowledge, attitude, and performance of oncology nurses and to survey nurses’ chemotherapy workload and the experienced side effects.
Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted at four hospitals of Urmia University, Iran. Two self-reported questionnaires were distributed among 54 oncology nurses to collect information on nurses’ workload and side effects as well as to evaluate their level of knowledge, attitude, and performance. Totally 54 nurses were participated in the study.
Discussion: The mean age and chemotherapy work experience of nurses were 32.4±6.5 and 4.3±3.5 years, respectively. About 52% and 36% of nurses reported the lack of safety guideline and training program at their workplaces, respectively. Hair loss, headache, and period abnormalities were the most reported side effects of exposure with ANDs. All nurses prepared ANDs in biological safety cabinet but 85.5% and 37% of nurses used respirator and eye protection during drug preparation. The mean score of knowledge, attitude, and performance of nurses were 9.43±1.5 out of 12, 39.14±6.5 out of 60, and 13.41±4.7 out of 23, respectively.
Result: The result clearly point to the fact that there is a need for implementation of guidelines and training in studied oncology units. Through provision of proper personal protection and regarded training, hospitals could demonstrate organizational support leading to improvement of knowledge and performance as well as decrease of nurses’ concerns in exposure with ANDs.
Introduction: Good service quality is the company's ability to meet or exceed customer expectations or the degree of discrepancy between customer expectations and perceptions about the quality of offered service. This study was aimed to examine the quality gap of occupational health services in an oil & gas company of Iran.
Method: This cross-sectional study was done between March 2013 and April 2014 in Isfahan, Iran. The required data was gathered using a modified SERVQUAL instrument. A total of 194 respondents contributed in the study. Data analysis was done through SPSS.
Discussion: The results revealed a negative quality gap in SERVQUAL and its all five dimensions the highest and the least gap was observed in empathy and reliability dimensions, respectively. Also, the highest average gap between workers’ perceptions and expectations was seen in the empathy dimension (-5.60), followed by tangibles (-5.58), assurance (-5.44), responsiveness (-5.33) and reliability (-4.65). Also, statistical differences between expectation and perception of employees were confirmed for SERVQUAL and its dimensions (P<0.001).
Result: The results revealed the areas in which the studied company falls far from meeting employees’ expectations. Therefore, they establish the areas in which prompt quality improvements are needed. Therefore, our findings can be used as a basis for quality planning and designing of organizational initiatives to strengthen the quality of occupational health setting. Quality improvement initiatives should be taken across all five dimensions of SERVQUAL.
Empirical Feasibility of an Acoustic Cabin for Reduction the Workers’ Exposure to High Frequency Noise in Typical Metal Industry
Introduction: A practical solution which is sometimes efficient for noise control in the receiver locations is to enclose workers in an acoustic cabin. Accordingly, prediction of the noise insulation performance is regarded as an important aspect of the design a personnel cabin. This study empirically aims to design an acoustic cabin using sandwich panels in a typical metal industry and analyze its effectiveness for reduction the operators’ exposure to high frequency noise.
Method: Sheet metal was used as main element of the personnel cabin, and it was coupled with damping materials to achieve efficient noise insulation. The simplified prediction equations were used for prediction of noise transmission loss of the main elements (steel sheet). For design of the cabin sandwich wall, based on the primary prediction results, selection of the other materials and their thickness was performed empirically. Determination of the noise reduction performance of the designed cabin was performed based on in situ measurements.
Discussion: The results indicated that all workers were continuously exposed to high noise levels before intervention. However, inside the designed cabin, the exposure levels actually reduced to of 66.6 dB (A) which was much lower than the national exposure limit. The designed cabin showed an overall noise reduction of 20.5 dB (L).
Result: The results empirically confirmed where high insulation performance is required; sandwich panels which have adequate mass, low stiffness and high damping can be usually preferred.
Relationship between Hand Grip Strength and Functional Disability of the Elderly Living in Nursing Homes in Kerman, Southeastern Iran
Introduction:Functional disability refers to conditions in which a person is not able to fulfill the daily chores and activities on his/her own or requires assistive devices to perform them. The objective of this study was to investigate the functional disability of the elderly in Kerman, Southeastern Iran and its relationship with handgrip strength.
Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 110 elderly participants (58 man and 52 woman) living in nursing homes in Kerman in 2014. Data were collected using functional disability standard questionnaire and Jamar Dynamometer so as to measure grip strengths of the elderly. Moreover, data were analyzed by statistical tests at a significance level of 0.05 using SPSS software.
Discussion: The measured grip strength of women was significantly lower than that of men (P< 0.05). The grip power of the women in the age group of 60 -70 yrs was approximately equal with the grip power of men in the age group of 90 -100. With age increase, grip strength would decline in both genders.
Result: There was a strong and direct correlation between functional ability and handgrip strength. In addition, there was a significant relationship between the increase in functional disability of the elderly and decline in their grip strength.
HSE Key Performance Indicators in HSE-MS Establishment and Sustainability: A Case of South Pars Gas Complex, Iran
Introduction: Establishment of HSE management system (HSE-MS) in industries is served as important managerial factor which achieves the requirements of health, safety, environment and sustainable development. Today, HSE_MS is known as a vital system in occupational fields due to corresponding considerations for economy, sustainable development, society and ecology. The important role of HSE management system is completely undeniable in related standards for eliminations or reductions of hazards, anomalies, risks, accidents and adverse consequences.
Method: In this study, HSE key indicators were analyzed using the FMEA (Failure Mode and Effect Analysis) and the AHP (Analytical Hierarchy Process) methodologies. On this basis, the HSE performance assessment enhances the establishment of HSE_MS. The case study refers to refinery A, the South Pars Gas Field, Iran being reviewed from year 2009 (the beginning of the implementation of the HSE-MS) to year 2013.
Discussion: In health sector, the studied indicators of TROIF and TLOIF were reduced respectively from 2.4% and 1.7% in year 2010 to 0.3% and 0.3% in year 2013. This is a sign of complete accomplishment of standardization in year 2013. In the environmental sector, indicators of waste water, such as pH, TSS, BOD and COD achieved the environmental requirements.
Result: All indicators of air quality in year 2013 express impressive improvements compared to year 2010.
Introduction: Human errors are of the most important issues due to the technological advances in various work settings. In medical professions, including nursing, investigation of human errors would help to find out approaches for the identification and reduction of these errors. Hence, the present study aimed to identify and assess nurses' errors in emergency ward of an educational hospital, using Systematic Human Error Reduction and Prediction Approach (SHERPA).
Method: In this qualitative study, first, the purpose and the procedure of the research were completely explained to the nurses. Then, Hierarchical task analysis (HTA) was done and the nurses' tasks and subtasks were identified by observing their activities and conducting interviews. Then, the SHERPA worksheet was completed to find the errors pertinent to each task.
Discussion: Sixty-five tasks and 231 errors were detected regarding the nurse's tasks, of which 59.3% was action errors, 25.55% checking errors, 4.33% retrieval errors, 2.16% information communication errors, and 8.66% selection errors. This means that the highest and lowest errors were respectively belonged to action errors and communication errors. Moreover, the checking errors obtained the highest undesirable risk level.
Result: Overall, the action errors and the checking errors should be priority in controlling and reducing of nurses errors in emergency ward. It should be noted that SHERPA can cover a wide range of activities including factors such as patients and their caregivers or other wards of the hospitals which make this technique an appropriate tool for assessing the errors in medical professions.