Vol 10 No 2 (2018)

Published: 2018-05-24

Original Article(s)

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 259 | views: 947 | pages: 60-66

    The health of people is of great importance and stress is one of the factors affecting health. Stress affects people under different conditions and appears to be responsible for a significant number of illnesses and absenteeism among the workers of healthcare centers. The present study was performed to assess the occupational stress among the nurses working in the public hospitals of Babol City and identify the associated risk factors. This cross-sectional, descriptive-analytical study was conducted from October 2016 to April 2017 in the hospitals affiliated to Babol University of Medical Sciences (6 hospitals). A total number of 406 nurses working in the hospitals were selected by the simple random sampling method. The Occupational Stress Questionnaire-HSE was used to assess the nurses’ stress and the demographic data of the participants were collected by a researcher-made form. According to the results, the lowest and highest scores were related to communication (9.8 ± 3.3) and demand (23.1 ± 5.1) subscales, respectively. Based on the regression model, among the independent variables studied, only the variables of gender, weekly working hours, employment status, shift work system, and education level could predict the nurses’ occupational stress.  

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 257 | views: 1814 | pages: 67-74

    This study examined the influential factors of safety working behavior. Accordingly, the variables of attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavior control in the theory of planned behavior were studied. This cross-sectional and descriptive-analytic study was conducted on 240 employees working in the construction workshop of the Central Twin Towers Project by Telecommunication Company of Iran (TCI) from February 2017 to September 2017. The required information was collected using a researcher-made questionnaire. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS v. 23 and LISREL v. 8.8. According to the Pearson correlation, there was a significant correlation between the five variables of the questionnaire. In order to determine the validity of the confirmatory factor analysis and assess the reliability of the questionnaire, Cronbach's alpha was used. Then, the research hypotheses were tested by a structural equation model. The results showed that the effect of attitude (with the intensity of 0.49) and subjective norm (with the intensity of 0.46) on the behavioral intention was more than the perceived behavioral control (with the intensity coefficient of 0.19). According to the findings of this research, in order to improve safety-working behavior, corrective measures should be on the agenda to improve the attitudes and subjective norms of employees.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 254 | views: 604 | pages: 75-79

    Spirometry is a tool for screening and early diagnosis of harms caused by occupational respiratory exposures. Since spirometry results largely depend on the spirometry method, their credibility and acceptability may vary. Accordingly, this cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the quality of spirometry procedures and reports in the periodic examinations of workers in an industry. The study assessed a total number of 506 recorded spirometry test results related to the periodic examinations of 190 workers in an industry between 2005 and 2015. Each test was assessed in terms of ATS (American Thoracic Society) standards and the quality of reporting, and the obtained results were compared with the spirometry tests conducted by the research team. The most common error in performing these tests was the failure to allow for the 6-second exhalation (in 70% of the cases). After removing the effect of increasing age, it was found that the reported FVC (Forced Vital Capacity) and FEV1 (Forced Expiratory Volume in one second  ) in these tests were different from those in the standard spirometry tests performed by the research team by 5% in more than half of the cases and by more than 10% in a quarter of the cases. The results revealed the poor quality of the spirometry tests in the periodic examinations of the workers. Therefore, it is recommended to train the spirometry operators and monitor more vigorously the quality of spirometry tests in the occupational examinations.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 248 | views: 353 | pages: 80-86

    In order to prevent accidents and occupational diseases in workplaces, it is necessary to ensure the control of risks. Training has always been a fundamental pillar of health safety and environment management systems. This study was carried out to find the interventional role of training in the promotion of HSE culture in wood industries. The Behsazan Wood Industry in Eslamshahr County, central Iran, was selected as a case study. Initially, two pre-test and post-test sessions were held for the supervisors and workers in the company to assess the level of their HSE culture.  The analysis of the training needs was done in accordance with ISO 10015 after the administration of the specified training programs. The outcomes were analyzed using pre- and post-test statistical analyses. Finally, the relationship between training structures and HSE culture was investigated using structural equation modeling (SEM). After codification and implementation of six training courses, the results of the second part showed a significant difference in the three sub-factors, including "HSE awareness and attitude"," staff capability", and "HSE reporting". The noticeable changes in the sub-factor of "HSE awareness and attitude", as the most valuable result of this study, obviously indicated that the training programs were tailored and conducted to the training needs of the organization. Although the intervention seems to be effective from various aspects, however, it is often comprehensive and resource-demanding. Thus, it is highly recommended to improve learning outcomes in all domains (cognitive, affective, and psychomotor) for planning promotion programs.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 267 | views: 757 | pages: 87-93

    Large construction projects are always at high risk, so the safety of these projects would be of utmost importance. Analysis of risk resources and safety risk is one of the important activities to prioritize the existing risks as well as managing them in the process of building a power plant as one of the most at-risk industries in terms of safety issues. The purpose of this study was to analyze the safety risks existing in the construction phase of a power plant based on the Bow-tie technique. This cross-sectional analytical study was carried out in 2017 at the house power of a combined cycle power plant. Safety analysis of the risks was performed based on the Bow-tie technique using the Bow Tie ProTM software. For the more effectiveness of this study, two phases, including system descriptions and identification of the risk sources were designed and implemented before the risk analysis steps, and prior to identifying the path of each branch of the Bow-tie chart (from consequence to event occurrence). The results showed that the highest level of threats is related to “pressure cylinders”, “welding”, and “cutting” (including 8 threats of mechanical damage, heat, transportation, unsafe connections, cylinders storage, oil and grease, leakage, and flame retardation).  In addition, the most significant consequences were related to heavy loading (including 3 consequences of human injury, damage to cranes, and damage to facilities and equipment), pressure cylinders, welding, and cutting (including 3 consequences of human injury, fire and explosion, and damage to facilities and equipment). The findings indicated that Bow Tie ProTM software would be a suitable tool in analyzing the safety risks of large projects, such as the construction of power plants that involves considering preventive and limiting safety measures for prevention or mitigation of threats as well as controlling the safety implications of the construction activities.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 281 | views: 746 | pages: 94-100

    An extensive literature review revealed few published reports on the wet cleaning and reusing industrial HEPA filters, except for those on metallic and glass fiber filters. Accordingly, the effects of particulate loading effect on pressure drop as well as the capture efficiency of new custom fabricated high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters were determined and the findings were compared with those of the same filters after being wet cleaned and reused multiple times. A set of five samples from three different types of HEPA rated filtration media, made of polypropylene (Puritrate®), Teflon and glass fiber filters, were fabricated in cylindrical shape. Each filter was mounted in a specially designed filter testing unit and gradually loaded with airborne particles of cadmium telluride (CdTe) in 10-gram increments up to a total of 100 grams. During the loading, the face velocity of each filter was kept constant at 17. 8 m/s (3500 ft/min). Four filters (two Puritrate® and two Teflon) were fully loaded 4-10 times and each time they were wet cleaned in dilute (< 4%) nitric acid soaked for 24 hours, rinsed with deionized water and gradually dried at ambient temperature under a laboratory hood until the filter gained its original weight.  The glass fiber was used as a reference medium; it was loaded and tested only once and was not wet cleaned or reused. The pressure drop across all filters (new or reused) increased by cubic model expression as the filters were gradually loaded. Baseline pressure drop on new (unused) filters ranged from 45 Pa (Puritrate®) to 115 Pa (Teflon).  As the filter-loading progressed, the pressure drop ranged from 146 Pa (Puritrate®) to 306 Pa (Teflon).  After each wet cleaning and drying cycle, the filters' pressure drop returned almost to their original baselines. All filters, new or reused, performed well, with particulate capture efficiencies exceeding 99.97% at 0.3 µm. The results suggested that certain custom fabricated HEPA filters can be effectively wet cleaned and reused. 

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 352 | views: 703 | pages: 101-107

    The existence of mechanical vibrations inside and around the industrial machinery and the constant exposure of the operators to these vibrations, increase the risk of musculoskeletal disorders in the operators and gradually affect their general health. The research is an attempt to investigate the effects of ergonomic interventions on the whole body vibration (WBV) of heavy machinery drivers in Sarcheshmeh Copper Complex in southern Iran. To evaluate the drivers’ exposure to WBV, a total number of 25 drivers, out of 45 drivers working in the complex, were selected. The vibration level was measured for each operator before and after the intervention using Bruel & Kjaer 4447 HAVS – Hand-Arm and Whole Body Vibration Meter. The measurements were conducted simultaneously in three axes (X, Y, and Z) in accordance with ISO 2631-1:1997. The obtained results were compared with the occupational exposure limits, recommended by the Iranian Ministry of Health and Medical Education (MoHME) of Iran, as a national standard. The data analysis was done by the independent t-test in SPSS software version 19. The obtained results revealed that prior to the intervention; the highest exposure to WBV was in the z-axis, which was the main axis of vibration entry into the drivers’ body. The results also showed that the equivalent acceleration of all vehicles exceeded the permissible limits (0.65 m/s2). The mean and maximum exposure levels were 0.66 and 0.56 m/s2 before the interventions and  0.88 and 0.63m/s2 after the interventions, which were significantly different (P<0.001). The application of engineering and administrative interventions, such as seat replacement, modification of the suspension system, work pace control, and training the operators to properly control the vehicle, can play a meaningful role in reducing the exposure to the vibration from heavy mining machinery.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 332 | views: 988 | pages: 108-113

    Due to the high potential consequences of pipeline accidents, it is necessary to manage the inherited risks in the pipeline sectors. Several techniques are available to identify hazardous situations; however, it is crucial that the selected tool is tailored to the scope of work. HAZOP study is one of the most accepted techniques adopted by experts to identify hazards. Despite the wide application of HAZOP in process industries, this method is not suitable for pipelines. In this study, a new extension of HAZOP (P-HAZOP) was introduced through integrating the classic HAZOP and Kent’s method. This research focused on detecting a new sort of deviation from the design intent in pipelines. A previously conducted HAZOP study for a pipeline network was re-conducted using P-HAZOP. A large number of newly detected deviations demonstrated more coverage of the P-HAZOP for the pipeline scope. Finally, it is recommended to improve the traditional HAZOP for pipeline applications.