Vol 9 No 2 (2017)
The Effect of Emotional Intelligence and Job Stress on Burnout: A Structural Equation Model among Hospital Nurses
The Occupational burnout is considered as one of the most important problems that have numerous adverse effects on nurses' job. Various personal, psychological and social factors are effective in occupational burnout. Therefore, the goal of this study was to find out the relationship between emotional intelligence and job stress with occupational burnout of nurses working in public hospitals of Kerman. This descriptive-analytical and cross-sectional study, was conducted on 300 nurses working in Kerman hospitals who selected randomly by stratified method. Organizational and demographic questionnaire and occupational burnout, emotional intelligence and job stress questionnaires have used. Structural and confirmatory factor analysis models were used to measure the model of the study. Emotional intelligence and job stress affect occupational burnout. In addition, there were meaningful and negative relationships between emotional intelligence and job stress (P<0.001) and increasing emotional intelligence results in decreasing job stress. Based on the findings and the significance of occupational burnout and its adverse effects on nurses, one of the plans for decreasing the syndrome of occupational burnout in nurses could be concentration on improvement of psycho-personal factors of job environments including emotional intelligence and job stress.
Noise-induced hearing loss is considered as one of the most common occupational problems. Audiometric pattern of NIHL is different in various workplaces. This study was designed to find the prevalence and pattern of hearing loss in tile and ceramic industry. This was a cross-sectional study conducted on 853 tile and ceramic workers in Yazd, Iran. Plants were selected by simple random sampling from all tile and ceramic plants in Yazd. Hearing thresholds were recorded at 500, 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, 6000, and 8000Hz. Hearing loss at each frequency was defined as hearing threshold higher than15 dB-HL. Data were analyzed by SPSS (ver. 20) using Student’s
A Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process Approach to Identify and Prioritize Environmental Performance Indicators in Hospitals
Being threatened by various facilities in a city, modern urban environments have become extremely vulnerable and fragile. Hospitals are among potentially high-risk facilities. Environmental awareness is relatively lacking in the health sector with few organizations measuring their performance. Therefore, the issue is exceedingly important. This study aimed to identify and prioritize factors that influence environmental performance in hospitals. To identify factors that influence environmental performance in hospitals, a comprehensive review of literature was performed to compile a list of criteria, sub-criteria, and indicators of environmental performance in healthcare centers. The list was then adjusted by experts in the field using the fuzzy Delphi method and the factors were prioritized using fuzzy analytical hierarchy process. In order to verify the results, a fuzzy technique was also applied to determine the order of preference by similarity to ideal solution. Therefore to verify the weights and priorities assigned to the factors influencing environmental performance, the factors were once again rated by experts based on the criteria of specificity, measurability, availability, being realistic, and time-related. Six criteria, 22 sub-criteria, and 48 indicators were identified and prioritized. Furthermore, Fuzzy AHP and Fuzzy TOPSIS resulted in the same prioritization of the factors. Therefore, the results obtained from Fuzzy AHP are acceptable. Using appropriate indicators together with appropriate techniques can serve to improve the environmental performance in health care centers. The obtained results showed that the FAHP method could be used for prioritizing environmental performance factors in hospitals successfully.
Evaluating the Fatigue Rate of Lower Leg Muscles during Prolonged Standing: A Comparison between Stable and Unstable Footwear
It is well established that unstable footwear with a rounded sole design has the potential to alter lower limb muscle activity during standing and walking activities. Thus, the main objective of this study was to compare lower leg muscles fatigue rates between stable and also unstable footwear during prolonged standing. This study was conducted in Urmia, northwest Iran (2015) and participants included ten young healthy male. During 2 h of continuous standing with two footwear conditions (stable and unstable shoes), surface electromyographic (EMG) data of bilateral tibialis anterior (TA) and medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscles were continuously recorded. The probability of muscle fatigue was identified through recording simultaneous increase in the EMG amplitude and shift in the EMG frequency spectrum towards lower frequencies. According to analysis of EMG recordings, standing with stable shoe yielded significantly higher rates of muscle fatigue for bilateral MG muscles (p < 0.05). Furthermore, no significant differences were observed for the fatigue rates of TA muscles between two footwear conditions. However, none of monitored muscles were indicated fatigue during standing with unstable shoe. The results suggested that unstable footwear, compared to stable one, is more efficient to prevent the occurrence of muscle fatigue which seems to be advantageous for the musculoskeletal system. Therefore, unstable footwear can be recruited as an ergonomic intervention for individuals who stand for prolonged periods.
Evaluating the Performance of American PCM and Iranian Spadana Gel Ice Cooling Vest on the Perceptual and Physiological Strain Score Indexs of Asaluyeh in Iran
The aim of this study was to compare the effect of change phase paraffin cooling vest and Iranian Spadana Cooling Vest on the perceptual strain score index (PeSI),physiological strain score index (PSI)of Asaluyeh in Iran. This cross-sectional interventional study was conducted in 2016 on 90 workers with an identical level of physical activity and uniforms in Asaluyeh, southern Iran .The questionnaires of PeSI, heat strain score index (HSSI)and PSI were also administered to assess the PeSI and the sweating while wearing the vests and in the control group. The WBGT index was measured for 120 min as well, and the checklist of individual strength (CIS) and the comfort assessment questionnaire were filled by the workers too. The repeated measures Test and the statistical analysis software SPSS 21 were used to analyze and compare the data. The WBGT mean index was 37.65°C for all the three groups. The mean scores of PeSI, HSSI, PSI, and CIS in the groups with paraffin change phase cooling vests and Iranian cooling vests had a statistically significant difference compared to the control group (P<0/001). Wearing the paraffin cooling vests and the Iranian cooling vests for 90 min can reduce acceptably and appropriately, the heat stress level of the users by decreasing the oral temperature, the heart rate, and the PeSI value while increasing the CIS score.
Exposure to Vibration and Its Relationship with the Low-back Pain in the Drivers of Mining Heavy Vehicles
Vibration can disrupt comfort, decrease effective labour and adversely affect peoples’ health and safety. This study aimed to evaluate vibration and its relationship with lower-back pain in drivers of heavy vehicles in the mines of Sirjan Gol Gohar Complex. This cross-sectional study was conducted on drivers of heavy vehicles in mines of Sirjan Gol-e-Gohar Complex, Kerman Province, Iran in 2013. The statistical population consisted of 432 (216 cases and 216 controls) people. Data were collected using Nordic questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS20 software and statistical tests including t-test, ANOVA, chi-square and logistic regression test. Moreover, P<0.05 was considered significant. The prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders was significantly different in all three study aspects: in the past 12 months, in the past 12 months which resulted in limited activities and in the past 7 d in waist and back of drivers and non-drivers (P<0.05) (the incidence was more in drivers). Moreover, vibration was the main factor causing musculoskeletal disorders in the back (P=0.01).Vibration is a major factor causing musculoskeletal disorders in the back. Therefore, some suitable preventive measures must be taken to reduce exposure to vibration and to control it.
Harmful physical factors in workplace including temperature may affect the cognitive performance of human. This study was conducted to determine the impact of the intervention of heat on the accuracy and pace of working in men. This interventional study was conducted on 56 participants of the male students in the climatic chamber. After gathering the demographic information, the participants were divided into 2 groups including “case group” (under the condition of 30% relative humidity and dry bulb temperature of 35 °C) and “control group” (under the condition of 40% relative humidity and dry bulb temperature of 20 °C). After taking a rest for 10 to 15 min, the participants carried out all tests of job skill assessment (BATTERY method) including clockwise and counter-clockwise two-arm coordination test, V Pieron test, and test of targeting accuracy thermometer, in 0, 40, 80 and 120 min after commencing the test. The number of errors (accuracy assessment) and the duration of performing the test (pace assessment) were recorded. There was a significant difference in the mean values of working accuracy when the participants performed the tests of job skill assessment (P<0.001). The differences between the mean values of the pace of working when the participants performed the tests of job skill assessment were not significant except for targeting accuracy thermometer measurement (P>0.09). High temperature may cause a decrease in people’s performance and an increase in harmful behaviors, because of decreasing the accuracy.
The engine and power supply of trains in advanced rail transit systems are electric (Alternating current (AC) or Direct current (DC)). Such systems generate magnetic fields in the range of static or extremely low frequencies. This study aimed to assess occupational exposure of train drivers to Static Magnetic Field (SMF) and Extremely Low-Frequency Magnetic Field (ELF-MF). This study was conducted in 2014 on intercity and metro trains in Tehran. Seven trains were randomly selected from intercity and metro lines. Based on the BS EN 50500:2008 method recommendations, magnetic fields were measured by the TES-1394 (ELF-MF meter) and HI-3550 (SMF meter). The exposure of drivers was assessed in accordance with of ACGIH-TLVs. The independent sample t-test, Paired samples t-test, one-way ANOVA (with LSD post hoc), and Mann–Whitney nonparametric test were used for data analysis. Mean (±SD) value of ELF-MF and SMF were measured 1.47 (±1.67) µT and <0.1 mT in the intercity AC trains, 0.45 (±0.53) µT and 0.95 (±0.07) mT in the AC trains, and 0.35 (±0.22) µT and 0.08 (±0.86) mT in the DC trains. In addition, maximum exposure to ELF-MF and SMF were 9 µT in intercity AC trains and 1 mT in DC trains, respectively. In none of the situations, exposure of train drivers to ELF-MF and SMF exceeded the ACGIH-TLVs. This does not mean that these magnetic fields are safe and harmless. Hence, the clinical and/or epidemiological study, along with an ELF-MF and SMF exposure assessment of all railway personals, can be helpful for prevention, identification, and treatment of diseases.