Vol 9 No 3 (2017)
Hedonomics is a different perspective and a new branch of science in ergonomics, describing pleasure and satisfaction aspect in human-system interaction. Kansei Engineering (KE) method evaluates the user's emotional needs and their conversion to tangible product features or task. The purpose of this paper was to provide a brief review of the role and concept of hedenomics in ergonomics and to analyze the user's pleasure. In this review, articles were extracted from the Google Scholar, Scopus, Web of Science, and PubMed search engines. The main keywords for search were ergonomics, hedonomics, pleasure, and Kansei Engineering. Findings showed the significance of interaction of hedonomics and ergonomics, which the latter goal is to optimize human-system interaction and is central to the goal of all designs. Engineering is a method for converting cognitive and emotional needs to features of a product or a system in order to optimize it.
Occupational Exposure Assessment of Chromium (VI): A Review of Environmental and Biological Monitoring
Chromium (VI) compounds are used in various industries like metal coatings, protective paints, dyes and pigments for their properties especially anti-corrosive ones. Exposure to Cr (VI) may induce cancer, and cause irritation or damage to the respiratory tract, eyes, and skin. In addition, it may lead to mutagenic, genotoxic, and reproductive effects on humans. Workers are often exposed to airborne Cr (VI) via the inhalation of dust, fume or mist. There are various procedures for Cr (VI) exposure assessment as part of risk characterization and implementing a monitoring program. Analysis of chromium in environmental or biological samples must be considered. Air sampling and chromium analysis by different instruments and techniques, biological monitoring by different procedures to detect biomarkers, investigation of carcinogenicity and genotoxicity mechanism, medical examinations, and occupational exposure limits in workplace air and biological matrices are the important factors to be considered in the risk assessment strategy of Cr (VI). The purpose of this article was to review the literature and provide useful information about different methods for environmental and biological monitoring of chromium (VI) in order to assess quantitatively the risk of exposure to this compound.
Assessing and Comparing Human Errors in Technical operations in Petroleum Wells using Extended CREAM Technique
Excavating operations are among operations with high risk of accidents. Human errors have been identified as the main reason of such hazardous accidents. The present essay is going to scrutinize human errors type and probability in technical services in petroleum wells focusing on comparing acidizing and cementing operations. The basic and extended CREAM method was applied in this research. Initially, the main tasks and sub-tasks were identified in both operations. Then, control modes, common performance condition, cognitive failure probability were determined. In acidizing operations, 61.63% of the control modes were strategic and 7.69% of the opportunistic mode, while they were 25% and 12.5% in cementing operation, respectively. In acidization and cementation operations, the time of day, number of simultaneous goals and sufficiency of training and experience were considered as factors reducing performance. Furthermore, the cognitive failure probability has been more than 0.005 in 34% of sub-tasks in acidization operation, whereas in cementing, the failure probability has been more than this amount in 50% of the sub-tasks. The strategic control mode has held the highest percentage of control modes. In addition, in investigating the comparison of the more hazardous, the percentage of more strategic control in acidization operation indicates that acidization is safer than the cementation one. Considering the higher probability of cognitive failure under the sub-tasks of cementing operations, the probability of failure in the cementing is higher than that of acidization and is more hazardous. Therefore, it needs to implement some measures for decreasing human errors at these hazardous operations.
Experiences with Needle-stick and Sharp Object Injuries for Healthcare Workers in a State Hospital in Tokat Province, Turkey
Healthcare workers are at risk because they are in contact with patients and a variety of materials that may be infected. Needle-stick and sharp object injuries can cause the transmission of blood-borne diseases. This study described the research regarding injuries from needle-sticks and sharp objects, and the precautions to be undertaken in the event of such injuries in order to enhance occupational and other safety. This study was conducted at Tokat State Hospital, affiliated with the Tokat Association of Public Hospitals General Secretariat. From Jul to Oct 2015, 550 health care workers were interviewed. These volunteers answered a 29 question survey face to face. The survey responses were statistically analyzed using SPSS version 16. The group was 59.6% female, and 44.4% were nurses. When the needle-stick and sharp injury properties of the research group were evaluated, 20.72% had experienced an injury in the last year, and 31.09% had such an injury at some point during their career. Moreover, 88.54% of the volunteers answered that they had been vaccinated for hepatitis B. Although there were a large number of injuries, a very small number of these cases were reported. The use of safe medical tools and periodic educational programs that teach precautionary measures can reduce the number of injuries.
Musculoskeletal pain is commonly reported in dentists and can start from their training period and continue throughout their practice if preventive or corrective measures are not implemented. To evaluate the perception of dental students in relation to the risk factors that may contribute to the musculoskeletal pain, and verify how the existence of painful symptoms influences the perception of risk factors. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 241 dental students at public university of São Paulo, Brazil in 2016. The data were collected through interviews, using the Standardized Nordic Questionnaire for Musculoskeletal Symptom and the Work-Related Activities that May Contribute to Job-Related Pain Questionnaire. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS 21.0. Painful symptoms were observed in 199 participants (83.0%). Most students had their perception classified as minimal to moderate (86.3%). A statistically significant association (P=0.005) was found when the test of association between the perception of risk factors and the presence of painful symptoms was performed. The highest averages were found in the issues related to repetition of movement, followed by work-related factors and finally the risks to external factors. There are statistically significant differences in the average perception when comparing the group with and without pain for each question of the instrument when comparing the body areas. Undergraduate students are aware of the factors that contribute to health issues and development of musculoskeletal pain, and in particular, there is a greater perception among those who may have had any symptoms.
Establishing of Participation Maturity System in Safety Management by Using Safety Culture Maturity Model through Targeted Hazard Identification System (THIS) Technique
Current study aimed at establishing and improving participation maturity system based on safety culture of maturity model through Targeted Hazard Identification System (THIS) technique in safety management system conducted an intervention in rolling industry. The present study was carried out as a case study in a rolling company from 2012-2015, composed of 72 participants. Firstly, participation status was specified using a formulated questionnaire (Cronbach's alpha=0.79). Safety culture maturity model was used in order to establish safety participation model and improve participation maturity system. These steps include ground making for establishment of participation system, participation at management level, individual involvement, group participation, and finally continuous improvement of participation system. In order to develop individual involvement, THIS technique was run. Following implementing interventions for improvement of participation maturity system in three-year period, participation level was reinvestigated. Initial mean score of workers’ participation was 26.94, while optimal score of participation is 30, and supports interventions. Mean score of participation after interventions and establishment of safety participation system was 34.06 which was a bit higher than expected average. Although workers’ participation in safety management system is away from ideal maximum, essential attempts are needed. Realization and achievement of participation for improvement of participation maturity are focused on investigation and identification of effective and facilitator factors in this process. To this end, planning and implementing improvement programs in structured and systematic way including training and increasing awareness of workers in workplaces and creating participatory structures and formulating instructions can be effective in participation.
Noise is the most frequent physical agent in workplace that effects on hearing loss. This study aimed to investigate the value of noise exposure in different jobs along with noise induced permanent threshold shift of workers, prediction of hearing threshold alteration in relation to job and work experience using ISO 1999 standard and comparing with measured hearing loss. This study was performed among 138 Iranian workers in a Yazd spinning factory in 2014. Noise exposure level was measured using ISO 1999 method in any work conditions. An audiometric test was done in a standard soundproof room by an experienced audiologist. Noise induced hearing loss was identified after reduction of age related hearing loss. Necessary program for hearing loss prediction of workers was prepared using the ISO method. Finally, data were analyzed by SPSS16 software. Mean age and employment duration of participants were 36.58 ± 6.76 yr and 11.08 ± 5.47 yr, respectively. Mean noise exposure in office, spinning, baling, carding, combing and other parts was 45, 94, 95.5, 90, 85 and 88dBA, respectively. Mean measured hearing threshold was 16.69 ± 7.82dB in right ear and 17.59 ± 8.55 dB in left ear. The duration of employment and noise are two important factors in work-related hearing loss. There was a significant difference between the measured noise induced hearing loss and its predicted values (P<0.05). Better surveillance and prevention programs are recommended to reduce the prevalence of work-related hearing loss, such as perform pre-employment medical and periodic occupational health examinations.
The Use of Accident Indicators for Risk Assessment Monitoring in Design and Construction Phase of Pelletizing Project, 2016-2017
To preserve workforce and reduce accidents, requirement in industrial HSE management system relies on prevention before occurrence. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety conflicts by preliminary hazard analysis (PHA) method and monitoring of subjective risk assessment by safety performance indicators. This descriptive–analytical study was carried out on 30 jobs in the Yazd pelletizing project in the 2016-2017. After classifying risks in Preliminary Hazard List (PHL), severity and probability of the risk and the initial risk assessment code (RAC1) were calculated. Acceptance risks were eliminated of the PH L, and the remainder for corrective actions was recorded in the form of PHA and then the secondary risk assessment code (RAC2) was determined. Annual safety performance indicators were also calculated for these jobs and finally, statistical analysis was conducted on the relationship between mentioned indicators and the results of risk assessment. In order to determine the relationship between RAC1 and safety performance indicators (AFR, ASR, and FSI), a Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated. Among different occupations, the highest accident frequency rate and risk related to welding jobs. The relationship between RAC1 and RAC2 showed a significant difference between risk assessment code before and after corrective action. Our result was an indicative of the effectiveness of corrective actions. Regarding the monitoring of risk assessment by accident indicators and significant relationship between them, subjective risk assessment research can be used for further safety in working environments.