Vol 11 No 4 (2019)
Human error is one of the most important factors contributing to accidents. Unfortunately, in many reported accidents, a human error such as Bhopal, Three Mile Island, and Chernobyl played a significant role. The purpose of this research was to identify and evaluate the human errors that happened by the butene-1 unit’s control room operators in a petrochemical industry using Human Error Assessment and Reduction Technique (HEART) and Technique for the Retrospective and Predictive Analysis of Cognitive Errors (TRACEr) methods. In this study, 9 control room operators in a petrochemical industry unit based on the three-shift work schedule was investigated in 2016. The census sampling method was used to select sample size through all operators. The data were collected using observation methods, interview with control room’s operator, and shift controller as well as by previous incidents assessment. The research included three major parts. In the first part, all functions of control room operators were analyzed and a Hierarchical Task Analysis (HTA) was conducted. In the second part of this research, the types and reasons of human errors in each task were identified by the TRACEr method. Finally, in the third part, HEART method was applied regarding each job to review tasks, human error pre-condition impact factors, and determine the risk of error. In the current study, 2273 External Error Modes (EEM’s), 1768 Internal Error Modes (IEM’s), 1401 Performance Shaping Factors (PFS’s), 1185 Psychological Error Mechanism (PEM’s) were identified in the petrochemical plant’s control rooms. According to the results obtained from the TRACEr technique, the most influential factors affecting the occurrence of human errors happened by the control room operators were alertness, concentration, fatigue, improper use of communication devices, and the quality of communication. Based on the findings, the most effective performance shaping factors for control room operators were alertness, concentration, and fatigue, respectively. Since, control room operators had to repeat tasks in a seated posture and in front of a monitor which may cause to decrease their alertness, concentration, and increase fatigue. So it is recommended to use smart ergonomic chairs for control room operators to prevent loss of consciousness.
Evaluating the Microscope Users Occupational Health Status Considering Musculoskeletal Disorders and Visual Fatigue at Tehran University of Medical Sciences
A large number of specialists, technicians, and postgraduate students use microscopes in the laboratory for a long time and are at high risk for musculoskeletal disorders and eye fatigue. Long-time working with a microscope can be negatively affecting both the visual and musculoskeletal systems. This study was aimed to evaluate the occupational health status of microscope users in two dimensions of musculoskeletal problems and eye fatigue at Tehran University of Medical Sciences. A group of 40 microscope users at Tehran University of Medical Sciences was selected in this cross-sectional study. The instrument used in this study was the Eye Fatigue Questionnaire, Flicker Fusion System (PM-SS22881-Pars Madar Asia) for measuring eye fatigue, Nordic questionnaire, and Berg scale. Eye fatigue was measured in two stages before starting work and 60 minutes after work with a microscope. The Borg scale was used to compare the amount of discomfort and pain in the upper and lower limbs before and at the end of the work. The Nordic questionnaire was also used to assess the prevalence of musculoskeletal problems. The descriptive data were analyzed using paired T-test, and simple linear regression via SPSS software version 22. More than half of the users suffered from pain and discomfort in the neck, upper back, and shoulder. There were significant differences in the mean score of visual fatigue symptoms and the mean score of flicker value between two stages, respectively (P< 0.001). Simple regressions were obtained for changes in the questionnaire score (R² = 0.708). The correlation coefficient indicated an inverse and significant association of flicker value changes with changes in questionnaire scores and visual fatigue symptoms. A majority of the participants were experienced musculoskeletal disorders and visual fatigue. Early symptoms recognition could be an effective way to control the incidence of visual fatigue at higher levels among microscope users. In addition, ergonomic equipment and training may be useful to decrease most musculoskeletal disorders.
The present research was carried out with the aim of designing and testing a model of genuine leadership outcomes, where genuine leadership construct was selected as an antecedent variable; the constructs of organizational citizenship behavior, psychological well-being, and job aspiration as outcome variables and ethical and trust atmosphere constructs as mediation variables. For this purpose, 200 personnel of a military unit were selected by simple random sampling. The instruments of this study were including questionnaires of genuine leadership, ethical work atmosphere, organizational trust, organizational citizenship behavior, psychological well-being, and job aspiration. The data were analyzed through structural equation modeling (SEM) and intermediate analysis. Modeling analyzes supported the structural equations considering the proposed model with the data. The results indicated a direct positive effect of genuine leadership on ethical job environment, organizational trust, organizational citizenship behaviors, and job aspiration, a direct positive effect of ethical work environment on organizational citizenship behavior and job aspiration, a direct positive effect of organizational trust on organizational citizenship behavior and job aspiration, and an indirect positive effect of genuine leadership on organizational citizenship behavior and job aspiration through the ethical work environment and organizational trust. Based on the findings of this study, it can be concluded that organization administrators should pay special attention to identify, evaluate, and promote authentic leadership in their organizations. Therefore, it is suggested that the organizations should recruit authentic leaders, and should encourage, support, and develop this type of leadership in order to increase the productivity of the organizational performance.
Risk Assessment from a Passive Defense Perspective- a Case Study at Shams Abad Industrial Estate, Iran
With the increasing development of knowledge and the emergence of new technologies in different industrial and production sectors, especially the growth of chemical industries and, of course, ascending trend in the chemical accidents incidence, it is necessary to implement risk management principles and increase safety to prevent accidents is of particular importance. This study was conducted to assess the risks in chemical storage tanks in order to achieve a risk management, improve safety, and reduce vulnerability from the perspective of passive defense in the industrial estate. In this descriptive-analytical study, the FMEA and William-Fine methods were used to identify and prioritize risk based on the risk type and cost control in industrial town with a passive defense perspective in chemical production and maintenance unit at Shams Abad industrial estate. Based on the study’s findings, 57 risks were identified, the first priority in the FMEA method was related to the chemicals tank temperature increase due to the lack of control and monitoring system, and tracking and warning devices with the calculated risk score of 720 and the last priority was related to liquid spills. The cause of natural factors was determined by a risk score of 90. A number of risks had the same risk scores. According to the William-Fine risk assessment method, immediate corrective actions also were needed and activities with these risks should be stopped until control measures were implemented. It was recommended that 9 risks should to be investigated as soon as possible. According to the priorities set and risks observed from the passive defense point of view, in order to control the identified risks, anticipation and provision of equipment and facilities were suggested to improve for controlling chemical accidents in industrial estates, development of maintenance instructions, installation and launching monitoring, tracking, announcing and controlling systems, establishing an automatic fire extinguishing system, providing and using appropriate personal protective equipment, observing the principles of passive defense in the correct location for the establishment of industrial estates according to the factors affecting passive defense, establishing a center for accident information in the country, strengthening inter-sectoral coordination in accident management, developing accident prevention and management programs, training employers, employees and educating locals, anticipating alternative routes for ambulance traffic and maneuvering in industrial estates.
Validity and Reliability of Rating Scale Mental Effort, Integrated Workload Scale, and Overall Workload Scale in Iran
Mental workload is an important issue in occupational health. This study aimed to determine the validity and reliability of the Rating Scale Mental Effort (RSME), Integrated Workload Scale (IWS), and Overall Workload Scale (OW) in Iran. This study was conducted on 100 male students of Iran University of Medical Sciences. The forward-backward translation method was used to evaluate the linguistic validity of the scales. Then the scales were presented to six ergonomics and occupational health experts to assess the content validity of the scales. Internal validity of the scales was assessed by correlating mental workload scale scores with reaction times on a criterion task. Finally, multiple sessions of a hybrid memory-search task were performed to determine the reliability of the scales. There was prefect agreement among the experts regarding of all three scales. Content Validity Index and Content Validity Ratio were 1 for each three scales. About the reliability of the scales, the Pearson correlation coefficients between the scale scores in the test and retest phases were 96, 88, and 84 for RSME, IWS, and OW, respectively. Finally, Validity and reliability of the scales were approved and It seems that these scales can be used for measuring self-reported mental workload.
Investigating the Prevalence of Fungal Infections among Operating Personnel at a Petroleum Refinery Complex on Warm and Humid Conditions
Infectious diseases are one of the most important health and economic problems in the world, especially in developing countries. Hence, the present study was aimed to investigate the epidemiological prevalence and predict the fungal infections’ effective factors among operating personnel at a petroleum refinery complex located in the south of Iran on warm and humid conditions. A group of 200 individuals was selected to collect fungal infections samples from five parts of their body including the auricle, ear canal, foot toes, foot palm, and foot nail. After sampling, the collected samples were transported into a laboratory and cultured in a culture medium for three weeks in thermal conditions of 25 centigrade on an incubator. In the next step, the grown fungi were detected using the colony examination and fungal characteristics of staining with lactophenol cotton blue, and the slide culture method. As well as, air temperature and relative humidity were measured using a WBGT. Data were analyzed finally using SPPSS software version 22.The mean and standard deviation of the air temperature and relative humidity in the operating units were 39.2 ± 7.34 Celsius degrees and 75.8 ± 15.31 percent, respectively. Of 200 samples cultured in the laboratory, 188 showed negative culture results and 12 samples had positive culture results. The fungal infections were founded in measured body parts of some people including the auricle of four subjects, ear canal of nine subjects, foot toes of five subjects, foot palm of six subjects, and foot nail of twelve subjects. Of 1000 isolated samples, 15 cases had been infected with trichophyton, eight cases with onychomycosis, six cases with aspergillus, four subjects with Candiais, and three cases with microsporum harborum. Based on the results, trichophyton were the most common fungal infections. As well as, foot nail and ear canal areas were founded as the most prevalence of places with the infections.
Identifying the Unsafe Behaviors among Construction Industry Workers and Determining the Effect of Kiken Yochi Training (KYT) Intervention on their reduction in Iran
Nowadays, occupational related diseases and accidents are considered one of the main causes for mortality worldwide. However, Kiken Yochi Training (KYT) is one of the interventions to reduce the incidence of unsafe behaviors at workplace, yet there are few evidence-based studies on its effectiveness. This study was aimed to identify the unsafe behaviors among workers in the construction industry in Iran and determine the influence of Kiken Yochi Training intervention on their reduction. In this study, the unsafe behaviors of workers in Atieh Sazan construction Company, Tehran, Iran, were investigated. For this purpose, 452 workers were randomly selected and 11733 observations regarding unsafe behaviors were reported. In the second phase, Kiken Yochi Training was applied over three months, then observations were recorded once again. Socio-demographic questionnaire and Tarrant’s checklist were used. 25.69% of the recorded behaviors in the first phase and 18.57% after the intervention, were unsafe. Unsafe use of equipment and inappropriate ergonomic status were among the most common risky behaviors. The average percentages of unsafe behaviors before and after the intervention were reduced by about 36%. Kiken Yochi Training was effective in diminishing the unsafe behaviors among workers. There was a significant relationship between the number of unsafe behaviors, age, experience, type of occupation, educational status, and having a previous accident (P value <0.01). In the present study, it was concluded that the occurrence of unsafe behaviors among construction industry workers could be reduced by promoting awareness and raising knowledge. Moreover, it was recommended to have continuous monitoring, training sessions based on behavioral safety principles establishment, a safety culture in addition to reliance on academic experiences development.
Incorporating Lead and Lag Key Performance Indicators Technique into AHP Method for HSE Management System Performance Measurement in Selected Food Products Industry
Most industries throughout the world are planning to reduce occupational illnesses, accidents, near misses, financial, and environmental losses using preventive approaches based on the human, financial, and environmental resources conservation issue. Therefore, HSE units have been established step by step in different industries and contributing to each other well-integrated. Thus, the HSE unit’s performance rate or level is significant considering their important role and it is required to be measured and reviewed regularly. In this study, lead and lag performance new technique indicators with “analytic hierarchy process” (AHP) and “key performance indicators” (KPI) were used in order to measure HSE management system performance level in a selected food products company which including three main steps: measurement criteria’s determination in three health, safety, and environment scopes using AHP technique to determine importance rate and scoring them in two lead and lag groups, calculating deviation frequency and severity parameters, reward factor in two lead and lag groups, and finally HSE management system performance level score determination in every 5 year period. The results were indicated HSE management system performance level gradual progress in meat products section of food products company in the last 5 years and showed relatively good on average progress in dairy products section. The dairy product section had better performance and faster progress trend which affected considerably due to the accident happened last year (2019) and consequently placed in weak performance level in that year. KPIs leading and lagging indicators could be used with multi-criteria decision-making methodologies to evaluate HSE management system performance while it is important to select exact indicators and categorize them into leading and lagging parts.