Vol 12 No 2 (2020)
Evaluating Occupational Stress and Associated Burnout Based on Demand–Control Model among EMS Personnel in Ilam
Occupational stress with the physical, chemical, biological, and ergonomic hazards is among the five main risks in the workplace. One of the most common techniques used for assessing occupational stress is the demand-control model developed by Karasek. This study was aimed to determine occupational stress and associated burnout based on Demand–Control Model among EMS personnel in Ilam. This cross-sectional study was carried out on 72 of Ilam emergency medical services center in 2016. Occupational stress was assessed by the Persian version of Job Content Questionnaire (P-JCQ) and the occupational burnout was assessed by the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) in emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment levels. Descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression were applied for data analysis via SPSS software version 21. Mean and standard deviation score for decision-making freedom, psychological demands, social support, physical demands, and job insecurity dimensions were (70.87±7.99), (35.18±4.84), (23.64±6.33), (16.30±2.86), (9.1± 4.65), respectively. About 27.3% of personnel reported their job active, 30.3% passive, 22.7% high strain, and 19.7% low strain. A comparison of the relationship between occupational stress and associated burnout showed a significant relationship between the decision-making freedom dimension and depersonalization level (P<0.05). Based on the results, it can be concluded that the majority of personnel reported low psychological demands and low control. In such situation, the probability of mental disorders is increased.
Amongst occupational disorders, musculoskeletal disorders and, most importantly low back pain is the most frequent ones. The most popular and widely used risk assessment method among ergonomists for estimating LBP exposure risk is the Revised NIOSH Lifting Equation. In order to improve RNLE, many studies have been carried out yet, and their limitations have been described. One of these cases is the inconsistency of vertical multiplier with anthropometric conditions of various workers' societies. Methods: In the present study, by designing a laboratory work, VM has been carefully considered. Thirty-one volunteer students consisting of 19 males and 12 females, participated in two tests, using a dynamometer; and results were analyzed by Minitab software. Results: The results have shown a significant relationship between isometric muscular strength in two tests, but there was no correlation between body mass index and isometric muscle strength. Based on results, VM, permissible, and the optimum range of manual lifting location height were analyzed and adapted to volunteers’ condition. Conclusion: It seems that with changes that have been made, the RNLE results can be more proportionate for Iranian workers.
Investigating the Association between Personality Traits and Mental Health with Accident Proneness in Iranian Male Workers of Chemical Industries
The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between five personality traits of Zuckerman theory and the General Mental Health Index between two groups of individuals in terms of accident proneness score and to present a predictive model of accident proneness trait in the studied population. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 270 Iranian male workers of chemical industries having work experience of at least one year and a maximum age of 45 years voluntarily participated in the research. The baseline data and background information of all participants were collected and they were asked to fill out the GHQ-28 questionnaire, Zuckerman-Kuhlman personality questionnaire, and TAS subscale of the Zuckerman Sensation-Seeking Scale-V (SSS-V). The results showed that work experience (p=0.002), marital status (p=0.041), social dysfunction (p=0.037), severe depression (p=0.023), and aggression hostility (p=0.020) were significantly varied between the two groups of accident-prone and non-accident-prone. Also, using the variables investigated by the binary logistic regression model, the attribute of having or not having accident proneness was predicted at R Square of 0.416. It was found that personality traits of Aggression Hostility and Psychological Symptom of Social Dysfunction and Severe Depression have associated with accident proneness in the population under study.
Investigating the Relationship between Anxiety and Depression with Fatigue and Job Involvement among Employees in a Copper Smelter
The purpose of this study was to investigate character variations and its relationship with occupational fatigue and involvement (labor participation) among employees in a melting unit at Sarcheshmeh Copper Complex. This cross-sectional research was carried out on 145 employees of melting unit at Sarcheshmeh Copper Complex. A simple random sampling was used to collect data based on the three standard Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Swedish Occupational Fatigue Inventory (SOFI), and Labor Participation (Job Involvement). One-way ANOVA, Pearson correlation coefficient and Spearman's correlation coefficient were used to analyze the data. The average age of the respondents was 38 ± 6.94 years and their average working experience was 10.46 ± 6.73 years. Among the personnel, (76%, n=111) had acute anxiety and (64%, n=93) had mild depression. The mean and standard deviation of job involvement for these subjects was 52.41 ± 7.12 (Desirable situation). There was a significant relationship among all aspects of fatigue including lack of energy, physical effort, lack of motivation, drowsiness (P <0.05) whereas the physical discomfort with job involvement did not show a positive relationship. The results indicated that there was acute anxiety, mild depression and high job involvement among the employees of melting unit.
Hazardous chemical accidents have increased in the previous decade in Iran. The analyses of these accidents helps inform accident prevention in the future. This study was aimed to characterize and analyze the chemical accidents occurring in Iran during the period of 2018-2020. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2020. Data were obtained from the registered chemical accidents checklists in the inspection database at Ministry of Health. Descriptive analyses were applied to characterize the hazardous chemical accidents based on time, place, death, injuries, type, and cause of injury. Odds ratio and Chi de test assessed how the main variables under study were associated with the occurrence of hazardous chemical accidents. Analytical tests of Chi-square test and Chi-square test by means of Monte Carlo simulations were used to investigate the relationship between the main variables studied and the occurrence of chemical accidents. The results showed that more than half of these chemical accidents occurred in basic chemical installations and manufacturers. Among the direct causes of assessed chemical accidents, 45% of them were related to equipment/utilities failure. Providing safety data sheet for chemicals, chemical labeling, and emergency response plan as the main components of chemical safety management program were significantly related to occurrence of chemical accidents in the chemical enterprises (P-value=0.01). In spite of the implementation of chemical safety management program since 2015 in Iran and routine inspection by chemical enterprises, the trend of hazardous chemical accidents is increasing. The economically developed provinces particularly, medium and small sized chemical enterprises, need more official rules and strict supervisions in order to prevent accidents and mitigate the harmful consequences.
Designing a Model for Predicting and Analyzing Factors Affecting the Occurrence of Environmental Incidents: A Case Study in MAPNA Group
Nowadays, environmental incidents are one of the most important problems around the world; therefore, it is of particular to manage these incidents. The aim of this study was to identify the causes of environmental incidents, analysis of their interactions, and the contribution of these factors in the occurrence of environmental incidents at Mapna group. Tripod Beta method was used to determine the effective factors occurrence of the environmental incidents after collecting data, screening and classifying. Thereafter, factor analysis was designed to provide a conceptual model. In order to analyze the relationship between the affecting incidents factors, a model was designed and the contribution rate of each factor was determined. So, the most effective causes of these incidents were determined for each identified causes. Finally, a goodnes of fit test was performed to determine the reliability of the model. By performing Tripod Beta analysis, it was found that 68.5% of the prerequisite causes and 71.3% of the identified latent causes were related to organizational factors, control and monitoring, audit and review, and production requirements. The results showed that the latent causes have the highest beta value; therefore, these had the highest impact on the occurrence of environmental incidents at Mapna group. It was also found that "insufficient commitment of management" was the most important cause of the environmental incidents. The organization management commitment and appropriate techniques are those key factors which should be taken into account in controlling the risk of environmental incidents.
Application of Cost Justification Index of Safety Control Measures (J) In William Fine's Method in the Iranian Studies: A Systematic Review
In the current study, we examined how to use William Fine method, as one of the risk assessment methods in the cost justification index for the control measures, in risk assessment studies in Iran. The present study was aimed to provide a better understanding of the benefits and limitations of this method and to develop a platform for improving the cost factor table in this method. A literature review was done using the PRISMA database toolkit. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the risk using William Fine's method, so general keywords including safety, risk assessment, William Fine were searched in Persian databases and their English equivalents in English databases. The results were analyzed qualitatively. A total of 357 related articles were observed however, 30 qualified studies were included in the systematic review process. A majority of previous studies only applied William Fine's method to rank the risk score whereas the cost justification index of control measures only calculated the risk score in a limited number of studies. William Fine's method has a high score in evaluating corrective strategies in economics and engineering, due to utilizing the cost justification index. One of the strengths of William Fine's method is the cost justification index. The cost index table uses relatively outdated numbers which may causes for limited application of justification index in the studies.
The Respirator Fitting Characteristics: The Emerging but Negligent Issues Influencing Optimal Respiratory Protection against New Coronavirus (Covid-19)
According to the hierarchy of hazard controls, respiratory protective equipment (RPE) is considered as the last prevention and control measure against chemical and biological respiratory hazards. However, the correct application of these kinds of personal protective equipment (PPE) as the only control means are inevitably unavoidable during aerosol-generating procedures (AGPs) such as tracheal intubation, noninvasive ventilation, and tracheostomy and so on. Nonetheless, two vital factors influencing the optimal use of RPE are as follows: the filtration efficiency of the respirator and the fitting characteristics of the respirator into the subjects’ facial dimensions to ensure the appropriate respiratory protection. It is of utmost importance for HCP, while they are conducting high-risk procedures during emergencies such as the outbreak of the Covid-19.